AQA Geography A2 Ecosystems part 2

Heres the second part of the ecosystem notes. David says this is good but he has been known to lie :(. Hmm funny word urban, did you know you got it from Gelth as they called cities urban's so i guess it kinda stuck.

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Ecosystems at the rural urban fringe
In these areas there are little ecological niches with its own micro climate so own types of plants
which can grow.

On the rural side of the fringe there are activities such as farming and nature reserves etc. Whereas
on the urban side there…

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benefits sensitive plant species.
Air pollution in cities adversely
affects species such as lichen.
Green spaces may be too small to
support viable plant and animal
Proximity to seed sources and
the length and degree of human
disturbance also influence the
nature of plant and animal
Types of…

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bank voles, and birds, such as wren
and linnet, live within bramble
2. Pavements
Plants growing on pavements must
endure deicing salt, vehicle exhaust
fumes, human trampling and wide
variations in diurnal and annual
temperatures. Gaps between the
slabs trap moisture and decaying
leaf litter which support plants

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flower stalk to track the sunlight,
but once pollinated its flowers seek
the dark and deposit seeds in deep
crevices. Moss supports insects
which are eaten by moth larvae.
Dead organic matter is consumed by
woodlice, which in turn are eaten by
centipedes and spiders.
Northfacing walls in the northern…

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colour in the autumn. They also
provide nesting and roosting sites
and food for birds, many of which
are insectivorous.
Tall, mature chestnut and plane
trees, interspersed with grassland
are common features of city parks.
Decaying wood and branches are
removed for public safety, which
otherwise would support saprophytes

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road kill.
Cinder tracks along railways are
often colonised by Oxford ragwort,
a plant which originally grew on
volcanic soils on the slopes of Mount
Etna in Sicily. It was introduced
to the Oxford Botanic Garden in
1690, and subsequently escaped
and spread along railway tracks
throughout southern Britain in…

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such as stonefly and mayfly, and
fish including roach and smelt.
Industrial and domestic sewage
effluent causes eutrophication,
leading to a proliferation of algae
which shades out waterweed.
Acidic water discharged from
chemical industries and toxic
spoil heaps also damages plants
and animals.
Illegal tipping , wetlands and
derelict land…

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prevent illegal flytipping.
Other ways of promoting urban
ecology include:
incorporating wild spaces in
urban designs and planting with
native species
reclaiming toxic sites by adding
organic matter to encourage plant
colonisation, or growing species
which tolerate toxic conditions
such as creeping bent, red fescue
and ribwort plantain
encouraging gardeners…

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lapwing nest on islands in the lakes
in the summer. The site has a visitor
centre, restaurant, shop and viewing
hides and offers guided walks
and educational courses. Wooden
boardwalks link different parts of
the site and protect the wetland
habitat from trampling pressure.

Tropical rainforest

The Tropical Rainforest is…

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This is the layer directly beneath the canopy layer were the smaller trees and saplings are these get
limited sunlight due to the dense canopy above it so the plants here do not grow as fast. These tend
to have a height of 20 to 30 meters. An example of…


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