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Cells and Simple cell transport
Most human and animal cells have:

A nucleus to control the cell's activities
A cytoplasm, in which most of the chemical reactions take place
A cell membrane, which controls the movement of materials in and out of the cells
Mitochondria where energy is released during…

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Examples of the functions of cells

Cell Function Adaption

Absorbs light Packed with chloroplasts. Regular
energy for shaped, closely packed cells form
photosynthesis a continuous layer for efficient
absorption of sunlight.

Leaf cell

Absorbs water and Long 'finger-like' process with
mineral ions from very thin wall, which gives a

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In the lungs, the blood will continue to take in oxygen from the
alveolar air spaces provided the concentration of oxygen there is
greater than in the blood. Oxygen diffuses across the alveolar walls
into the blood, and the circulation takes the oxygen-rich blood

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Digestive System Part(s) Function

Pancreas and salivary glands Produce digestive juices

Stomach Digests food

Liver Produces bile

Small intestine Digest and absorb soluble food

Large intestine Absorbs water from undigested food, producing faeces

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Adaption Purpose
Epidermis is thin and To allow more light to reach the palisade cells
Thin cuticle made of wax To protect the leaf without blocking out light
Palisade cell layer at top To absorb more light
of leaf
Spongy layer Air spaces allow carbon dioxide to diffuse

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Three factors can limit the speed of photosynthesis: light intensity, carbon dioxide
concentration and temperature.

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Without enough light, a plant cannot
photosynthesise very quickly, even if there is
plenty of water and carbon dioxide. Increasing
the light intensity will boost the speed of
photosynthesis. Light provides the energy for the

Sometimes photosynthesis is limited by the
concentration of carbon dioxide in the air. Even…

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Proteins, catalysts and enzymes

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Enzymes in digestion
Some enzymes work outside the body cells. Digestive
enzymes are produced by specialised cells in glands and the lining of the gut. The enzymes
pass out of the cells, and come into contact with the food. Digestion involves the
breakdown of the large, insoluble molecules into smaller…


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