GCSE Unit 2 Biology Notes

Wrote out some notes with the help of my revision guide x this follows the AQA syllabus 

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  • Created on: 29-12-12 21:01
Preview of GCSE Unit 2 Biology Notes

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Cells and Simple cell transport
Most human and animal cells have:
A nucleus to control the cell's activities
A cytoplasm, in which most of the chemical reactions take place
A cell membrane, which controls the movement of materials in and out of the cells
Mitochondria where energy is released during aerobic respiration
Ribosomes, which is where protein synthesis occurs (the process in which cells build
Plant Cells (and algal cells) also have:
Cell Wall- made of cellulose strengthens cell and gives it support
Chloroplasts- contain green substance chlorophyll absorbs light energy for
Permanent vacuole- fluid filled space important for keeping cells rigid to support plant
(cell sap)
Specialised Cells

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Examples of the functions of cells
Cell Function Adaption
Absorbs light Packed with chloroplasts. Regular
energy for shaped, closely packed cells form
photosynthesis a continuous layer for efficient
absorption of sunlight.
Leaf cell
Absorbs water and Long 'finger-like' process with
mineral ions from very thin wall, which gives a
the soil large surface area.
Root hair cell
Fertilises an egg The head contains genetic
cell - female information and an enzyme to
gamete help penetrate the egg cell
membrane.…read more

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In the lungs, the blood will continue to take in oxygen from the
alveolar air spaces provided the concentration of oxygen there is
greater than in the blood. Oxygen diffuses across the alveolar walls
into the blood, and the circulation takes the oxygen-rich blood
away.…read more

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Digestive System Part(s) Function
Pancreas and salivary glands Produce digestive juices
Stomach Digests food
Liver Produces bile
Small intestine Digest and absorb soluble food
Large intestine Absorbs water from undigested food, producing faeces…read more

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Adaption Purpose
Epidermis is thin and To allow more light to reach the palisade cells
Thin cuticle made of wax To protect the leaf without blocking out light
Palisade cell layer at top To absorb more light
of leaf
Spongy layer Air spaces allow carbon dioxide to diffuse
through the leaf, and increase the surface area
Palisade cells contain To absorb all the available light
many chloroplasts
Photosynthesis…read more

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Three factors can limit the speed of photosynthesis: light intensity, carbon dioxide
concentration and temperature.…read more

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Without enough light, a plant cannot
photosynthesise very quickly, even if there is
plenty of water and carbon dioxide. Increasing
the light intensity will boost the speed of
photosynthesis. Light provides the energy for the
Sometimes photosynthesis is limited by the
concentration of carbon dioxide in the air. Even if
there is plenty of light, a plant cannot
photosynthesise if there is insufficient carbon
If it gets too cold, the rate of photosynthesis will
decrease. Plants cannot photosynthesise if it
gets too hot.…read more

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Proteins, catalysts and enzymes…read more

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Enzymes in digestion
Some enzymes work outside the body cells. Digestive
enzymes are produced by specialised cells in glands and the lining of the gut. The enzymes
pass out of the cells, and come into contact with the food. Digestion involves the
breakdown of the large, insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules.…read more


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