GCSE Statistics Chapter 1 Summary- Collecting Data

After completing this chapter, you will be able to;

  • understand what is meant by statistics
  • specify a line of enquiry and form a suitable hypothesis
  • recognise the difference between quantitative and qualitative data
  • know the difference between discrete and continuous quantitative data and that the measurement of continuous data is subject to some error
  • understand the meaning of bivariate data
  • know the difference between primary and secondary data
  • understand the meaning of the term population
  • know what is meant by a census
  • understand the reason for sampling and that sampling is used to estimate values in the population
  • understand the terms 'random', 'randomness' and 'random sample'
  • understand and use a variety of sampling methods
  • know how to collect data using questionnaire, interviews and observation.
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1.) Statistics are a way to answer questions using information. The
information has to be observed or collected, ordered, represented and then
2.) A hypothesis is an assumption made as a starting point for an
investigation. It may or may not be true.
3.) Quantitative variables are numerical observations or measurements.
Qualitative variables are non-numerical observations.
4.) Continuous data can take any vale on a continuous numerical scale.
Discrete data can only take particular values on a continuous numerical
5.) A set of data is categorical if values or observations belonging to it can
be sorted into different categories.
6.) Ranked data is data has values/observations that can be ranked (put in
order) or have a rating scale attached. Ranked data can be counted and
ordered, but not measured..
7.) Bivariate data is pairs of related variables.
8.) A measurement given correct to the nearest whole unit can be inaccurate
by up to +/- ½ units.
9.) A population is everything or every body that could possibly be involved in
an investigation.
10.) Census data contains information about every member of the
11.) A sample contains information about part of the population.
12.) The sampling units are the people or items that are to be sampled.
The sampling frame is a list of the people or items that are to be sampled.
13.) A random sample is chosen without a conscious decision about which
items from the population are selected.
14.) Primary data is collected by, or for, the person who is going to use it.
Secondary data has been collected by someone else.
15.) A survey is the collection of data from a given population. The data is
used to analyse a particular issue.
16.) A pilot survey is conducted on a small sample to test the design and
methods of that survey.
17.) A questionnaire is a set of questions designed to obtain data.
18.) An open question is one that has no suggested answers.

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A closed question has a set of answers for the respondent to choose
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