# All definitions for Chapter 1 in the Edexcel 9-1 GCSE Statistics Textbook

This is a detailed compilation of every single textbook definition for terms within GCSE Statistics Chapter 1: Collection of Data. I've taken these terms right out of the textbook: http://bit.ly/Statisics-Book, so it is 100% correct! Hope it helps!

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• Created by: ABizz
• Created on: 13-04-19 14:49
Data
Information
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Raw data
Data as it is collected - before it is ordered, grouped or rounded
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Quantitative data
Numerical observations and measurements, eg. shoe size, temperature
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Continuous data
Data that can take any value on a continuous numerical scale, eg. length, mass
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Discrete data
Data that can only take specific values on a continuous numerical scale, eg. shoe size, number of pets
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Qualitative data
Non-numerical observations, eg. colour, name
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Categorical data
Data that can be sorted into non-overlapping categories, eg. colour
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Ordinal data
Data that can be written in order/given a numerical rating scale, eg. league positions of football teams
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Bivariate data
Involves pairs of related data, eg.age and price of cars
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Multivariate data
Involves sets of three or more data values, eg. plant colour, height and leaf size
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Class intervals
Groups within classes, which do not overlap (discrete data is sorted into these), eg. 1-10, 11-20
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Primary data
Data which is collected by/for the person who is going to use it. This is done through direct observation, eg. through a survey or questionnaire.
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Secondary data
Data which has been collected by someone else/from reference sources such as the National Statistics Office
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Population
Everything or everybody that could possibly be involved in an investigation
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Census
A survey or investigation with data taken from every member of a population
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Sample
A small group of people/items which fully represent the population they are taken from
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Sampling units
People or items to be sampled
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Sampling frame
A list of all the sampling units
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Petersen capture-recapture method
A method for estimating the size of a population
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Random sampling
Sampling units are chosen randomly; every member of the population has an equal chance of being included
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Judgement sampling
Personal judgement is used to select a sample that is representative of the population
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Opportunity sampling
Only the people/objects available at the time are used
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Cluster sampling
The data naturally splits into groups, eg. geographical areas. The list of clusters is the sampling frame, and clusters are randomly selected to make the sample.
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Systematic sampling
Items are chosen at regular intervals using a sampling frame, eg. every 5th person is chosen
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Quota sampling
The population is grouped by characteristics, eg. age/gender. A group of these are selected for the sample, eg. 10 males aged 10-25
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Stratified sampling
A sample which contains members from each stratum in proportion to the actual size of the stratum
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Data collection sheet
A table or tally chart used to record results
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Explanatory/independent variable
Explains changes in that variable, or affects the response/dependent variable
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Response/dependent variable
The focus of an experiment/the variable which is observed in an investigation
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Laboratory experiments
Experiments conducted in a controlled environment
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Field experiments
Experiments conducted in the test subjects' everyday environment - researcher has control over variables
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Natural experiments
Experiments conducted in the test subjects' everyday environment - researcher has no control over variables
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Simulation
Used to model real life events and help with making predictions - easier and cheaper than actually conducting experiment
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Questionnaire
A set of questions designed to obtain data
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Respondent
The person who is completing the questionnaire
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Open question
A question which has no suggested answers
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Closed question
A question which has a set list of suggested answers
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Random response method
A method which uses a random event to decide how to answer a sensitive question, eg. 'have you ever shoplifted'?
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Outlier/anomalous data value
A value that does not fit the general pattern of the data
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Cleaning data
A process which identifies/corrects inaccurate data values/errors, removes units/symbols and decides what to do about any missing data
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Extraneous variables
Variables which you may not be interested in, but could still affect your results - these must be controlled
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Control group
Used to test the effectiveness of a treatment - one group is given the treatment; the other is not given anything
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Matched pair tests
Two groups of people are used to test the effectiveness of a treatment; each individual in one group is paired with an individual in the second group (who has similar characteristics, eg. age, height)
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Hypothesis
An idea that can be tested by collecting and analyzing data
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Data as it is collected - before it is ordered, grouped or rounded

Raw data

### Card 3

#### Front

Numerical observations and measurements, eg. shoe size, temperature

### Card 4

#### Front

Data that can take any value on a continuous numerical scale, eg. length, mass

### Card 5

#### Front

Data that can only take specific values on a continuous numerical scale, eg. shoe size, number of pets