Statistics Edexcel GCSE

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What is a hypothesis?
A prediction as to what your data finds
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What are the 5 constraints of data collection?
Cost, Confidentiality, Convenience, Ethics, Time
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What is data cleaning?
Formatting or removing of data
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What is quantitative data?
Numerical data
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What is qualitative data?
Non-numerical data
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What is categorical data?
Data put into categories
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What is ordinal data?
Data which has an order or scale
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What is discrete data?
Data which can only fit certain values
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What is continuous data?
Data which can be any positive value (theoretically)
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What is ungrouped data?
Data which isn't put into intervals
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What is grouped data?
Data in intervals
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What is bivariate data?
Data which has 2 variables eg. weight and height
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What is multivariate data?
Data which has more than 2 variables
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What is an issue in grouping data?
Less accurate to calculate with
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What is an independent variable?
A variable which changes throughout the investigation - goes on the x axis
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What is a dependent variable?
A variable which is being measured
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What is a control variable?
A variable which is kept the same throughout
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What is primary data?
Data collected by the researcher
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What is secondary data?
Data collected from outside sources
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What is an advantage of primary data?
You can be sure it is reliable, as you know the method used
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What is a disadvantage of primary data?
It takes a long time to collect
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What is an advantage of secondary data?
It is faster and cheaper to collect
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What is a disadvantage of secondary data?
It may be unreliable, as the method may be unknown
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What is a population?
The group that your investigation applies to
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What is a sample frame?
A list of all members of a population
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What is a census?
Data coming from the whole population
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What is a sample?
Data coming from a sample of the population
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What is cluster sampling?
Taking a census of everyone in a small area of the population
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What is convenience sampling?
Asking people you see at your location
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What is quota sampling?
Asking a certain number of people from different groups
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What is systematic sampling?
Asking people in a pre-defined system eg. every 2 pieces of data
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What is random sampling?
Numbering the population, randomly generating numbers, match to population
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What is stratified sampling?
Selecting a number of people from different groups proportionally
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What is an advantage of cluster sampling?
Easy, representative of area
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What is a disadvantage of cluster sampling?
Unrepresentative of whole population
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What is an advantage of convenience sampling?
Cheap, easy
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What is a disadvantage of convenience sampling?
Unreliable, may be biased
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What is an advantage of quota sampling?
It removes bias
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What is a disadvantage of quota sampling?
It may unrepresentative
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What is an advantage of systematic sampling?
Easy, fast
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What is a disadvantage of systematic sampling?
The data may follow a pattern, so it is unreliable
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What is an advantage of random sampling?
Unbiased, reliable
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What is a disadvantage of random sampling?
It may not be representative
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What is an advantage of stratified sampling?
It is representative and reliable
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What is a disadvantage of stratified sampling?
It takes a long time to calculate
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What is a strata?
The category used in a stratified sample
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What are 5 ways to collect data?
Experimental, observations, census, questionnaire, simulation
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What should be done with secondary data in investigations?
It should be acknowledged
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What is validity?
How well a test gets the needed data
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What is reliability?
How likely data is to yield the same results
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What is the formula for stratification?
(strata size/Σfrequencies) x sample size
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What is the random response technique used for?
Sensitive questions
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How is a random response techniques question written?
Ask for a random event - if eg.heads, answer certain box. If not, answer truthfully
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What is done with the random response technique answers?
Estimate number who answered based on event, subtract from total, find proportion left, and apply proportion to sample
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What is a leading question?
A question which manipulates to get a specific answer
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What 2 reasons are pilot questionaires used for?
Checking if there is a problem in a question, ensuring correct data is collected
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In what 5 situations is data cleaned?
Missing data, incorrect format, non-responses, incomplete responses, outliers
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What is matched pairs?
When 2 people with similar traits are put into different groups
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What is a control group?
A group put under no different circumstance eg. given a placebo
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the 5 constraints of data collection?

Back

Cost, Confidentiality, Convenience, Ethics, Time

Card 3

Front

What is data cleaning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is quantitative data?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is qualitative data?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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