# Statistics Edexcel GCSE

?
What is a hypothesis?
A prediction as to what your data finds
1 of 59
What are the 5 constraints of data collection?
Cost, Confidentiality, Convenience, Ethics, Time
2 of 59
What is data cleaning?
Formatting or removing of data
3 of 59
What is quantitative data?
Numerical data
4 of 59
What is qualitative data?
Non-numerical data
5 of 59
What is categorical data?
Data put into categories
6 of 59
What is ordinal data?
Data which has an order or scale
7 of 59
What is discrete data?
Data which can only fit certain values
8 of 59
What is continuous data?
Data which can be any positive value (theoretically)
9 of 59
What is ungrouped data?
Data which isn't put into intervals
10 of 59
What is grouped data?
Data in intervals
11 of 59
What is bivariate data?
Data which has 2 variables eg. weight and height
12 of 59
What is multivariate data?
Data which has more than 2 variables
13 of 59
What is an issue in grouping data?
Less accurate to calculate with
14 of 59
What is an independent variable?
A variable which changes throughout the investigation - goes on the x axis
15 of 59
What is a dependent variable?
A variable which is being measured
16 of 59
What is a control variable?
A variable which is kept the same throughout
17 of 59
What is primary data?
Data collected by the researcher
18 of 59
What is secondary data?
Data collected from outside sources
19 of 59
What is an advantage of primary data?
You can be sure it is reliable, as you know the method used
20 of 59
What is a disadvantage of primary data?
It takes a long time to collect
21 of 59
What is an advantage of secondary data?
It is faster and cheaper to collect
22 of 59
What is a disadvantage of secondary data?
It may be unreliable, as the method may be unknown
23 of 59
What is a population?
The group that your investigation applies to
24 of 59
What is a sample frame?
A list of all members of a population
25 of 59
What is a census?
Data coming from the whole population
26 of 59
What is a sample?
Data coming from a sample of the population
27 of 59
What is cluster sampling?
Taking a census of everyone in a small area of the population
28 of 59
What is convenience sampling?
29 of 59
What is quota sampling?
Asking a certain number of people from different groups
30 of 59
What is systematic sampling?
Asking people in a pre-defined system eg. every 2 pieces of data
31 of 59
What is random sampling?
Numbering the population, randomly generating numbers, match to population
32 of 59
What is stratified sampling?
Selecting a number of people from different groups proportionally
33 of 59
What is an advantage of cluster sampling?
Easy, representative of area
34 of 59
What is a disadvantage of cluster sampling?
Unrepresentative of whole population
35 of 59
What is an advantage of convenience sampling?
Cheap, easy
36 of 59
What is a disadvantage of convenience sampling?
Unreliable, may be biased
37 of 59
What is an advantage of quota sampling?
It removes bias
38 of 59
What is a disadvantage of quota sampling?
It may unrepresentative
39 of 59
What is an advantage of systematic sampling?
Easy, fast
40 of 59
What is a disadvantage of systematic sampling?
The data may follow a pattern, so it is unreliable
41 of 59
What is an advantage of random sampling?
Unbiased, reliable
42 of 59
What is a disadvantage of random sampling?
It may not be representative
43 of 59
What is an advantage of stratified sampling?
It is representative and reliable
44 of 59
What is a disadvantage of stratified sampling?
It takes a long time to calculate
45 of 59
What is a strata?
The category used in a stratified sample
46 of 59
What are 5 ways to collect data?
Experimental, observations, census, questionnaire, simulation
47 of 59
What should be done with secondary data in investigations?
It should be acknowledged
48 of 59
What is validity?
How well a test gets the needed data
49 of 59
What is reliability?
How likely data is to yield the same results
50 of 59
What is the formula for stratification?
(strata size/Σfrequencies) x sample size
51 of 59
What is the random response technique used for?
Sensitive questions
52 of 59
How is a random response techniques question written?
53 of 59
What is done with the random response technique answers?
Estimate number who answered based on event, subtract from total, find proportion left, and apply proportion to sample
54 of 59
A question which manipulates to get a specific answer
55 of 59
What 2 reasons are pilot questionaires used for?
Checking if there is a problem in a question, ensuring correct data is collected
56 of 59
In what 5 situations is data cleaned?
Missing data, incorrect format, non-responses, incomplete responses, outliers
57 of 59
What is matched pairs?
When 2 people with similar traits are put into different groups
58 of 59
What is a control group?
A group put under no different circumstance eg. given a placebo
59 of 59

## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What are the 5 constraints of data collection?

#### Back

Cost, Confidentiality, Convenience, Ethics, Time

### Card 3

#### Front

What is data cleaning?

### Card 4

#### Front

What is quantitative data?

### Card 5

#### Front

What is qualitative data?