# Statistics Edexcel GCSE

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- Created by: qazxswedcvf12_3
- Created on: 11-02-19 20:06

What is a hypothesis?

A prediction as to what your data finds

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What are the 5 constraints of data collection?

Cost, Confidentiality, Convenience, Ethics, Time

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What is data cleaning?

Formatting or removing of data

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What is quantitative data?

Numerical data

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What is qualitative data?

Non-numerical data

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What is categorical data?

Data put into categories

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What is ordinal data?

Data which has an order or scale

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What is discrete data?

Data which can only fit certain values

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What is continuous data?

Data which can be any positive value (theoretically)

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What is ungrouped data?

Data which isn't put into intervals

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What is grouped data?

Data in intervals

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What is bivariate data?

Data which has 2 variables eg. weight and height

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What is multivariate data?

Data which has more than 2 variables

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What is an issue in grouping data?

Less accurate to calculate with

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What is an independent variable?

A variable which changes throughout the investigation - goes on the x axis

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What is a dependent variable?

A variable which is being measured

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What is a control variable?

A variable which is kept the same throughout

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What is primary data?

Data collected by the researcher

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What is secondary data?

Data collected from outside sources

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What is an advantage of primary data?

You can be sure it is reliable, as you know the method used

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What is a disadvantage of primary data?

It takes a long time to collect

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What is an advantage of secondary data?

It is faster and cheaper to collect

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What is a disadvantage of secondary data?

It may be unreliable, as the method may be unknown

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What is a population?

The group that your investigation applies to

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What is a sample frame?

A list of all members of a population

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What is a census?

Data coming from the whole population

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What is a sample?

Data coming from a sample of the population

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What is cluster sampling?

Taking a census of everyone in a small area of the population

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What is convenience sampling?

Asking people you see at your location

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What is quota sampling?

Asking a certain number of people from different groups

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What is systematic sampling?

Asking people in a pre-defined system eg. every 2 pieces of data

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What is random sampling?

Numbering the population, randomly generating numbers, match to population

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What is stratified sampling?

Selecting a number of people from different groups proportionally

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What is an advantage of cluster sampling?

Easy, representative of area

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What is a disadvantage of cluster sampling?

Unrepresentative of whole population

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What is an advantage of convenience sampling?

Cheap, easy

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What is a disadvantage of convenience sampling?

Unreliable, may be biased

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What is an advantage of quota sampling?

It removes bias

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What is a disadvantage of quota sampling?

It may unrepresentative

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What is an advantage of systematic sampling?

Easy, fast

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What is a disadvantage of systematic sampling?

The data may follow a pattern, so it is unreliable

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What is an advantage of random sampling?

Unbiased, reliable

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What is a disadvantage of random sampling?

It may not be representative

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What is an advantage of stratified sampling?

It is representative and reliable

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What is a disadvantage of stratified sampling?

It takes a long time to calculate

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What is a strata?

The category used in a stratified sample

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What are 5 ways to collect data?

Experimental, observations, census, questionnaire, simulation

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What should be done with secondary data in investigations?

It should be acknowledged

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What is validity?

How well a test gets the needed data

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What is reliability?

How likely data is to yield the same results

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What is the formula for stratification?

(strata size/Σfrequencies) x sample size

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What is the random response technique used for?

Sensitive questions

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How is a random response techniques question written?

Ask for a random event - if eg.heads, answer certain box. If not, answer truthfully

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What is done with the random response technique answers?

Estimate number who answered based on event, subtract from total, find proportion left, and apply proportion to sample

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What is a leading question?

A question which manipulates to get a specific answer

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What 2 reasons are pilot questionaires used for?

Checking if there is a problem in a question, ensuring correct data is collected

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In what 5 situations is data cleaned?

Missing data, incorrect format, non-responses, incomplete responses, outliers

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What is matched pairs?

When 2 people with similar traits are put into different groups

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What is a control group?

A group put under no different circumstance eg. given a placebo

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What are the 5 constraints of data collection?

#### Back

Cost, Confidentiality, Convenience, Ethics, Time

### Card 3

#### Front

What is data cleaning?

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

What is quantitative data?

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

What is qualitative data?

#### Back

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