GCSE diet biology

GCSE diet biology notes

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  • Created on: 23-10-11 13:58
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If there is decreasing in the blood glucose level: stimulates the pancreas to release glucagon (a
hormone secreted by the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels), which increases the level of
glucagon in the blood stream, glucagon breaks down glycogen (stored version of glucose) in the
liver, the liver releases glucose into the blood stream, INCREASED BLOOD GLIUCOSE LEVEL!
If there is increasing in blood sugar level: Increased glucose level in the blood stream
stimulates the pancreas to release insulin (a hormone secreted by the pancreas, lower blood
glucose levels), increases insulin level in the blood stream, the cells take glucose in through the
small gates, decreases the glucose level in the bloodstream, DECREASED BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL!
A balanced diet consists of the right proportions of: Fibre, proteins, fats, minerals & vitamins,
water and carbohydrates
Carbohydrates: contains starch which is broken down into sugars; slow release energy
Protein: for growth & repair (muscles are made exclusively of protein)
Fats: Second source of energy & insulation
Water: 70-80% of our body; all chemical reactions happen in fluid
Vitamins & Minerals: essential for various body functions
Fibre: not digested, helps digestive system so the large intestine have something to work against,
prevents constipation & exercises peristalsis (the movement of faeces through the large
Animals fats are bad for you (cause cholesterol)
Vegetable fats are good for you
Not eating enough will lead to reduced immunity & irregular periods in women
Genes can tend to show that someone will before fatter easier without careful dietary control
Too much food and little exercise leads to: arthritis (worn joints), Diabetes (High blood sugar
level), Heat and blood vessel disease (cardiovascular)
Type 1 Diabetes: In genes, aware of by the age of 14
Type 2 Diabetes: Eating lots of sugar through life-cells become unresponsive to starch/sugar
and the starch/sugar stays in blood causing high blood sugar levels
High Blood pressure: too much volume of blood in your heart
Conary artery gives the heart its oxygen and food; if clogged there is heart attack
Stroke happens when a part of the brain dies due to being clogged
To keep weight the same: energy intake=energy output
Metabolism (the rate which fuel from food into the energy needed to do everything from moving
to thinking to growing) slows down with age
BMI= weight (Kg)/Weight2 (m2)
Underweight<18.5; normal18.5-24.9; overweight: 25-29.9; obesity>30
Scurvy: Lack of vitamin C (vitamin C is needed for strong teeth and skin)
HDL: High density lipoprotein (attached to
protein/muscle in the body) Good cholesterol,
keeps LDL in check, for example,
polyunsaturated/monounsaturated (in crease
HDL: LDL) fats-vegetable oil, etc.
LDL: low density lipoprotein; bad cholesterol,
for example, saturated fat-animal fat, cheese,
butter, etc.
High HDL ratio to LDL is good as the LDL will
cause damage such as on the left, the HDL keeps
it in check to avoid this taking place.
Fit in blood makes the plasma cloudy
We need cholestroel as it forms our cell

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Simple carbohydrates: for example sugar, cakes, can be quickly turned into energy as they are
already pure sugar
Complex carbohydrates: for example. Bread, rice, are made of starch which have to be broken
down into sugar before they can be used; leading to slow release
The Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy needed to stay alive, awake and warm.…read more


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