GCSE BIOLOGY NOTES

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide
Characteristics of Living Organisms
Nutrition: Taking in food for growth and releasing energy.
Respiration: Burning glucose to release energy.
Excretion: Removing waste material like urea formed during chemical reactions.
Sensitivity: Responding to changes in the environment.
Movement: Transport inside cells and moving the body.
Homeostasis: Control their internal conditions.
Reproduction: Increasing the number of organisms.
Growth: Increasing the number of cells.
Variety of Living Organisms
Plants:
o Multicellular organisms
o Contain chloroplasts and are able to carry out photosynthesis
o Have cellulose walls outside the cell walls to provide support to the cell
o Store carbohydrates as starch and sucrose
o Have large permanent vacuoles filled with cell sap that contains water and dissolved substances
o Vary greatly in size and shape
Example of flowering plant: Rose
Examples of cereals: Maize
Examples of non-flowering plant: Conifers
Animals:
o Multicellular organisms
o Do not contain chloroplasts and cannot carry out photosynthesis
o Do not have cell walls
o Have small temporary vacuoles
o Usually have a nervous system and can move from one place to another
o Often store carbohydrates as glycogen
Example of a vertebrate is human
Example of invertebrate is earthworm
Fungi:
o Cannot carry out photosynthesis
o Some are multicellular:
Consist of mycelium made from thread-like structures called hyphae, which contain
many nuclei
Reproduce by spores
Example: Mucor
o Some are single celled:
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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide
Have cell walls made of chitin
Reproduce by budding
Example: Yeast
o Feed by extracellular secretion of digestive enzymes onto the food material and absorption of
the organic products. Also known as saprotrophic nutrition.
o Store carbohydrates as glycogen.
Bacteria:
o Microscopic single-celled organisms.…read more

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide
Pathogen: Any organism or agent, capable of causing disease or infection. This may be in the form of virus,
bacteria, proctista or fungi.…read more

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide
PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL
FUNGI CELL
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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide
Cell Structure and Organization
PLANTS ANIMALS
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Cell wall made up of cellulose No cell wall
Chloroplasts contains chlorophyll No chloroplasts
Large permanent vacuoles containing cell sap Small temporary vacuoles
Store carbohydrates in the form of starch Store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen
Cell wall: Protects supports and gives a fixed shape to plant cells; totally permeable.
Cell Membrane: Controls the substances that enter and exit the cell; selectively permeable.…read more

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide
Organs work together to for organ systems.
o For example, stomach, intestine, liver and pancreas work together to form the digestive system.
Several organ systems make an organism.
o The digestive system, nervous system, circulatory system, respiratory system, excretory system
and reproductive system form an organism.…read more

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide
Polysaccharides:
An example is starch as it is made up of many molecules of glucose and is the major carbohydrate
storage molecule in plants.
Are mainly used as an energy store and structural components in cells.
Main ones include starch and cellulose in plants, and glycogen in animals.
PROTEINS
Groups of large and complex molecules made up of long chains of amino acids.
o Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.…read more

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OBSERVATION
If sample turns blue-black in colour, starch is present.
If sample remains brown in colour, starch is absent.
TEST FOR GLUCOSE
PROCEDURE
Take a small piece of a food sample and put it in a test tube.
Add some water and shake to dissolve the glucose (if any).
Add some Benedict's solution.
Heat the test tube in a hot water bath.
OBSERVATION
If sample changes from blue to green to yellow to brick red, glucose is present.…read more

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide
LOCK AND KEY HYPOTHESIS
FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYMES:
Temperature
pH
Concentration of substrate
Concentration of enzyme
The optimum:
o The optimum temperature is the temperature at which the activity of an enzyme is greatest.
o The optimum pH value is the pH value at which the activity of an enzyme is greatest.
However, different enzymes have different optimums.
The enzyme is denatured when:
o The shape of an enzyme changes, as its active site may no longer work.…read more

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Enzymes are specific which mean that they only work on one type of substrate.
ENZYME SUBSTRATE END PRODUCTS
PROTEASE Proteins Smaller Polypeptides
PROTEASE Smaller Polypeptides Amino Acids
LIPASE Fats Fatty Acids and Glycerol
AMYLASE Starch Maltose
MALTASE Maltose Glucose
AMYLASE Sucrose Glucose and Fructose
Experiment to illustrate how enzyme activity is affected by changes in temperature:
PROCEDURE
1. Using a spotting tile, place 10 spots of iodine solution in the depressions.
2.…read more

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