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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide


Characteristics of Living Organisms

Nutrition: Taking in food for growth and releasing energy.
Respiration: Burning glucose to release energy.
Excretion: Removing waste material like urea formed during chemical reactions.
Sensitivity: Responding to changes in the environment.
Movement: Transport inside cells and moving the body.
Homeostasis:…

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide


Have cell walls made of chitin
Reproduce by budding
Example: Yeast
o Feed by extracellular secretion of digestive enzymes onto the food material and absorption of
the organic products. Also known as saprotrophic nutrition.
o Store carbohydrates as glycogen.
Bacteria:
o Microscopic single-celled organisms.
o…

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide


Pathogen: Any organism or agent, capable of causing disease or infection. This may be in the form of virus,
bacteria, proctista or fungi.




BACTERIA CELL




VIRUS CELL




Page 3 of 46

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide

PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL




FUNGI CELL




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Page 5

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide


Cell Structure and Organization

PLANTS ANIMALS

Cell Membrane

Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Cell wall made up of cellulose No cell wall

Chloroplasts contains chlorophyll No chloroplasts

Large permanent vacuoles containing cell sap Small temporary vacuoles

Store carbohydrates in the form of starch Store carbohydrates in the form…

Page 6

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide


Organs work together to for organ systems.
o For example, stomach, intestine, liver and pancreas work together to form the digestive system.
Several organ systems make an organism.
o The digestive system, nervous system, circulatory system, respiratory system, excretory system
and reproductive system form an…

Page 7

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide


Polysaccharides:

An example is starch as it is made up of many molecules of glucose and is the major carbohydrate
storage molecule in plants.
Are mainly used as an energy store and structural components in cells.
Main ones include starch and cellulose in plants, and…

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OBSERVATION

If sample turns blue-black in colour, starch is present.
If sample remains brown in colour, starch is absent.



TEST FOR GLUCOSE

PROCEDURE

Take a small piece of a food sample and put it in a test tube.
Add some water and shake to dissolve…

Page 9

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide


LOCK AND KEY HYPOTHESIS




FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYMES:

Temperature
pH
Concentration of substrate
Concentration of enzyme



The optimum:
o The optimum temperature is the temperature at which the activity of an enzyme is greatest.
o The optimum pH value is the pH value at which the…

Page 10

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Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide


Enzymes are specific which mean that they only work on one type of substrate.

ENZYME SUBSTRATE END PRODUCTS
PROTEASE Proteins Smaller Polypeptides
PROTEASE Smaller Polypeptides Amino Acids
LIPASE Fats Fatty Acids and Glycerol
AMYLASE Starch Maltose
MALTASE Maltose Glucose
AMYLASE Sucrose Glucose and Fructose


Experiment…

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