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B1.1.1 DIET AND EXERCISE
· Healthy diet: Contains the right balance of each food group and the right amount of energy
for your personal lifestyle.
· Carbohydrates, Proteins and fats are used for energy and build cells
· Minerals and vitamins (small amounts) are used to keep the body healthy.
· Water and fiber are also need to help with digestion and keep cells hydrated
· Malnourished=When someone diet is unbalanced; this can lead to being overweight,
underweight or lead to a deficiency such as type 2 diabetes.
· Weight is lost when: energy intake is lower then outputs (Exercise increases outputs)
· Metabolic rate= The rate at which all chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried
out. Effected by amount of activity you do, proportion of muscle to fat, inherited factors
· Inherited factors- metabolic rate, cholesterol level
· People who exercise are generally more healthier then those who don't…read more

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B1.1.2 PATHOGENS
· Pathogen- A microorganism that causes an infectious disease
· Bacteria and viruses rapidly reproduce and produce toxins that make us feel ill
· Viruses damage cells
· Body protection levels:
1. Outer protection: skin, platelets, wax + snot
2. Inner: Little hairs in throat, stomach acid
3. Immune system: white blood cells, temperature change
· White blood cells
· Producing antibodies which destroy a particular bacteria or virus, they then lock on and kill cells
· Ingesting pathogens
· Producing antitoxins to counteract the toxins produced by the microorganism…read more

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B1.1.2 IMMUNITY
· Antibodies ­ The immune system can remember the antibodies it has produced in the past
and therefore the body has immunity from it in the future. Dead/inactive pathogens can
stimulate antibody productions, this is used in immunisation injections.
· Semmelweis - Recognised the importance of hand washing in hospitals/ spreading of
diseases. This dramatically reduced deaths in hospitals
· Painkillers ­ Relieve the symptoms that diseases cause but do not kill the pathogens
· Antibiotics ­ Help cure bacterial infections
However they do not help cure viruses as they use your own cells…read more

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B1.1.2 ANTIBIOTIC STRAINS
· Overuse or inappropriate use of antibiotics has increased the rate of development of
resistant strains of bacteria
· Some have developed from mutations/natural selection
· If a course of antibiotics is not finished some of these immune are left and then reproduce,
this resistant strain is hard to kill and can cause an epidemic
· New antibiotics are needed all the time to cope with the new strains
· ANTIBIOTICS ARE NOW ONLY PRESCRIBED TO SERIOUS INFECTIONS SO THE RATE OF
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW STRAINS IS SLOWED DOWN.…read more

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B1.1.2 VACCINES
· Small quantity of dead/inactive pathogens introduced into the body.
· This stimulates white blood production to kill the pathogens.
· Therefore making the person immune and able to respond rapidly if ever seriously infected
e.g MMR = protects children against Measles, mumps and rubella…read more

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