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Achondroplasia Genetic condition caused by a dominant allele.
Someone who is heterozygous for this condition has very restricted
Activation energy Before a chemical reaction can take place, bonds
must be broken. This requires energy. This activation energy is normally
provided by heating the substances involved in the reaction. Enzymes…

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squamous epithelium. These cells are very thin and this helps to ensure
efficient diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood and of
carbon dioxide from the blood into the alveoli. The total surface area of
all the alveoli in the lungs is very large. This large surface area…

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Aneurysm A weakening of the wall of an artery, which results in a
balloon-like swelling. The condition is obviously very serious but in some
cases it is possible to repair the damaged artery surgically.
Angina Pain in the chest that occurs when the heart muscle does not
receive enough oxygen-rich…

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energy. Most of the ATP in a cell is produced from ADP and phosphate
using energy transferred during the process of respiration. When ATP is
broken down, ADP and phosphate are produced and a small amount of
energy is made available. This energy may be used: in active transport;

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tiny droplets. This increases the surface area on which lipid-digesting
enzymes act.
Blood clot When a wound occurs, a protein in the blood called
fibrinogen is converted to fibrin. Fibrin forms a mesh of protein fibres
over the surface of the wound. This mesh traps red blood cells to form…

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Carcinogen A substance which will cause cancer. Many organic
substances, such as those found in the tar in cigarette smoke, are
carcinogens. They damage DNA. Cells in which the DNA is damaged may
become cancerous. This is more likely when there is an inherited
tendency to develop cancer.
Cardiac cycle…

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form between neighbouring chains. These bonds hold the cellulose
molecules together in bundles called microfibrils.
CFTR protein The channel protein whosemalfunctioning causes cystic
Channel protein A protein that spans a membrane and is involved in
the transport of molecules across the membrane.
Cholesterol A type of lipid, which plays…

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Columnar epithelium Epithelial cells are cells that form the outer
surface of many animals. They also line cavities inside organs. Epithelial
cells differ in shape. Columnar epithelial cells are, as their name suggests,
tall and thin, and line the small intestine and the airways of the lungs.
Complementary base pairing,…

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Cytoplasm The cytoplasm is a jelly-like fluid surrounded by the cell
surface membrane. Ions, sugars and amino acids are dissolved in
cytoplasm, and large molecules are suspended. It also contains a
network of proteins, which help to give the cell its shape. Organelles
such as mitochondria are suspended in the…

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take place is sometimes referred to as a diffusion gradient. Oxygen
diffuses into a cell down a diffusion gradient.
Digestion, Digest The process in which the large insoluble molecules
which make up an organism's food are broken down by enzymes to
smaller soluble molecules. Mammals such as humans have specialised…




this is so useful!! do you have any more notes, on the second unit/paper 2??

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