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6.1: An overview of the Second World War

1. 1 September 1939 Germany invaded Poland
2. 3 September 1939 Britain and France declared war on Germany

The causes of the war
1. Hitler's aggressive foreign policy
a. Already annexed Austria and Czechoslovakia through Lebensraum
b. Britain and France declared war…

Page 2

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6.2: Civilian morale during the war

1. Hitler prioritised getting supplies to the home front
2. It was not until the end of the war that civilians suffered from shortages
3. Measures made to maintain support:
a. Meat rationed, but at 500g until April 1942
b. Extra rations given…

Page 3

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6.3: Opposition during the war

Christian opposition
1. 1941, Catholic protests against order to remove crucifixes from Bavarian churches caused
the order to be reversed
2. Catholic Bishop Galen opposed the euthanasia programme Aktion T4
3. Protestant Dietrich Bonhoeffer spoke out against the regime and was arrested in 1943, then…

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6.4: How efficient was the Nazi war economy?

The German economy during the early part of the war
1. 1939-41, German military expenditure doubled
2. 1941, 55% of workforce war-related
3. Britain produced x2 aircrafts
4. USSR produced 2600 more tanks
5. Chaotic organisation meant overlapping of responsibility. The Office…

Page 5

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6.5: The failures of the war economy

1. The state remained chaotic
2. Labour shortages:
a. Women not mobilised
b. Reliance on badly treated foreign workers; 60-80% less productive
3. Shortages of raw materials such as coal and oil and ersatz goods did not compensate
4. The resources they needed…

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6.6: The persecution of the Jews
Victims of the Nazis, 1939-45
1. WW2 caused 60m deaths total, including 26.6 soviet civilians
2. 6m Jews died in the Holocaust (2/3 of Jewish population of Europe)
3. 250k-500k Roma died
4. 15k homosexuals died
5. 1m killed by Einsatzgruppen in Eastern Europe…

Page 7

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6.7: The causes of the `Final Solution'

The role of Hitler
1. Expressed that Jews were not Germans in Mein Kampf, 25-points and his speeches
2. Proto-genocidal views
3. Anti-Semitic
4. Hitler said in 1941 that Jews should be `exterminated as partisans'
5. Most historians agree that Hitler did not…


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