french grammar

notes on year 9 french grammar. hope they help.

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A direct object pronoun
A direct object pronoun replaces a noun which is
the object of the sentence (e.g. I like it/them)
Masculine Feminine
It Le/l' La/l'
Them Les les
In French it goes in front of the verb.
La tele? Je regarde tout le temps.
Ces series-la? Je ne les regarde pas souvent.
Passé composé
To refer to past events you must use the Passé
composé (The perfect tense). Most verbs form
this with avoir, but a few important verbs take
When etre is used, the past participle agrees
with the subject of the verb.
Etre avoir
Je suis J'ai
Tu es Tu as
Il/elle/on est Il/elle/on a

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Nous sommes Nous avons
Vous etes Vous avez
Ils/elles sont Ils/elles ont
Reflexive verbs
Reflexive verbs are verbs which include an extra
pronoun before the verb.
Me, te, se, nous, vous, se.
In the perfect tense reflexive verbs take etre.
The past participle must agree with the subject.
Je me suis
Tu t'es
Il/elle/on s'est
Nous nous sommes
Vous vous etes
Ils/elles se sont
You can use aller + the infinitive to talk about the
future.…read more

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Acheter un magazine de foot
To talk about what is going to happen, you can use
aller +infinitive. Another way to talk about the
future is to use the future tense. It is formed
using the future stem of the verb plus the
appropriate ending.…read more

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Il y a can also be used to talk about how long ago
something took place. Here it comes before the
expression of time.
Il y a trios semaines = three weeks ago
Il y a un mois = a month ago
The imperfect tense is used to describe how
things used to be.…read more

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Vous vous êtes
Ils/elles se sont
Negative expressions go around the verb:
Je ne mange plus de frites- I don't eat chips any
Je ne bois que du coca- I only drink coke
Je n'ai jamais fume- I have never smoked
The pronoun en replaces de + noun. It goes in
front of the verb:
Je mange beaucoup de legumes.- I eat lots of
J'en mange beaucoup.…read more

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With people you address as tu, the imperative is
the present tense tu form minus the word tu. ­er
verbs drop the s at the end of the verb.
Bois beaucoup d'eau- drink a lot of water
Ne mange pas trop de chocolat- don't eat too
much chocolate
Emphatic pronouns
You use emphatic pronouns to draw attention to
the subject pronoun.
Elle, elle adore les pays chauds.- she loves hot
countries.…read more

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The pronoun y means there, referring to a place
which has already been mentioned. It goes in
front of the verb:
J'y vais demain- I'm going there tomorrow
On y est alle hier- we went there yesterday
Possessive Adjectives
The words for my, your etc., change according to
whether the noun possessed is masculine,
feminine or plural.…read more

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There are different words for this/these:
ce before masculine nouns
cette before feminine nouns
ces before plural nouns
cet before masculine nouns beginning with h or a
vowel…read more


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