FREE WILL and DETERMINISM - KEY WORDS

the key words of free will and determinism

a2 ethics with OCR

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  • Created on: 05-06-12 19:57
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Free will and Determinism Key Words
Aquinas
Free will ­ the Bible ­ Genesis ­ Adam and Eve. Aquinas stated that they were free because God
created them with free will; "man chose not of necessity but freely"
Freud
Childhood has an impact on actions in the future. Prior causes determine our moral development and
therefore our actions in the future. All actions are caused by `repressed' or `subconscious' memories
­ determine actions
B.F. Skinner
Investigated behaviour modification through reward and punishment (operant conditioning).
Behavioural science develops and psychologists learn to determine human behaviour ­ not free
Behaviourism
Behaviour can be predicted and controlled, as people live and act in a determined universe so that all
human behaviour is controlled by prior causes. Behaviour is influenced by heredity and environment ­
nature and nurture
Sartre/Existentialism
Freedom is both the goal and measure of our lives ­ from nothing man makes himself what he
chooses. Freedom is seen as a goal of moral action ­ if our freedom is limited, we aim to be and act
freely
Compatibalism
The belief that it is possible to be both free and determined as some aspects of our nature are
determined, but not our ability to make moral decisions
Kant
Determinism applied to everything which was the object of knowledge, but not to acts of the will.
Worked from two seemingly incompatible standpoints: theoretical (pure reason) and practical
(reason)
`Ought implies can'
The idea that someone cannot be blamed for what he could not do, but only for what he was capable
of doing but did not do
Libertarianism
The belief that determinism is false and people are free to make moral choices and so are
responsible for their actions
Imcompatabilism
The belief that determinism is logically incompatible with free will. Thus some incompatibilists will say
that determinism is a fact and so we are not free, but most take the opposite view that free will is a
fact and so determinism is false
Pavlov

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Conditioned dogs to salivate (as if they were about to be fed) when they heard the sound of a bell.
Known as classical conditioning. By manipulating the environment, people's behaviour can be altered
Darrow
There is always something that compels us both externally and internally to perform an action that
we think is free will.…read more

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The belief that determinism is true in many aspects, but we are still morally responsible for our
actions
Isaac Newton
The universe is governed by immutable laws of nature such as motion and gravitation. The world is
seen as a mechanism dominated by the law of predictable cause and effect
Heisenberg/Uncertainty Principle
We cannot know both the location and the momentum of subatomic particles at the same time.…read more

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