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Giddens (1992)
Choice and Equality
· The family and marriage have been transformed by
greater choice and more equal relationships between
men and women because:
Contraception means sex is more about intimacy in a
relationship rather than reproduction
Women have gained greater opportunities in education and
work due to feminism
· As a result couples are free to define their relationships as
they see fit, rather than acting out roles defined by laws
and traditions…read more

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Beck (1992)
Risk Society
· Tradition has less influence
· People have more choice
· We have become more aware of `risk' and the risks
involved with the lifestyle choices and decisions we make
· The traditional oppressive patriarchal family has been
challenged and undermined by:
Gender equality
Greater individualisation…read more

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Beck and Beck Gurnsheim
The `negotiated family'
· Negotiated families do not conform to the traditional family
norm
· Vary according to the wishes and needs of family
members
· People enter relationships on a more equal basis…read more

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Judith Stacey (1998)
The divorce extended family
· Women rather than men have been the main instigators of
change within the family
· Many women have rejected the traditional
housewife/mother role
· They created new types of family during their loves to
meet their needs
· `Divorce extended family' whose members are
connected through divorce rather than marriage and
include:
Former in-laws or a man's ex-wife and his new partner
Divorce extended families help family members out
emotionally and financially…read more

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Jeffrey Weeks (2000)
Growing acceptance of diversity
· Since the 1950s there has been a long term shift in
attitudes:
Sexual morality is a matter of personal choice
The church and state have less power and influence over
personal lives (secularisation)
Families of choice…read more

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