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  • Created on: 21-04-11 16:46
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What is the difference between hardware and software?
Hardware is the physical parts of the system whereas the software is the logical parts of the system
and the instructions which actually tell the computer do something.
What is the difference between an input, output and storage device?
An input device is any piece of hardware which sends data to the computer but an output device is
one that receives the data from the computer and somehow presents it, a storage device is simply a
piece of hardware that can store data.
What is the difference between systems software and applications packages?
Systems software is the set of instructions which allows the software to communicate with the
hardware, and they also allows the humans to communicate with the computer. This would be the
operating system of the computer. They allow data to be manipulated. However applications
packages are programs that are a set of instructions that carry out a specific task. It actually does
something useful for the user.
What are some application packages and what do they do?
User interfaces allow users to communicate with the computers programming languages allow the
users to give the computers some extra instructions, translators allow what the user has written in
programming language to be translated into something the computer can understand as an
instruction. Utility software carry out basic tasks and these come with the system software these could
be things such as virus checkers, compression software, file managers and backup software.
What is the problem definition stage and why is it important?
This is the first stage of the systems life cycle and this is when you define the problem. It is important
to define the problem accurately since this is the most important stage and if a mistake is made here
then the rest of the project will go wrong since you will not be making a solution for the right problem
and this could lead to wasted time, money, effort and resources.
What is the analysis stage of the system and you analyse the user's needs and find out more about
the old system and then produce a requirements specification.
What is the design stage of the systems lifecycle?
At this stage of the systems life cycle you work out what each part of the new system will do and what it
will look like, at this stage you include input and output screens and data capture methods and data
structures. You also include algorithms and also security measures that you will take and also a plan
for how you will implement the new system and a plan for how you will test the system.
What is the development stage of the systems lifecycle?
This is the part of the systems lifecycle where you actually write the code and then you buy any of the
new extra hardware and software you may need to purchase or produce.

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What is the testing of the systems lifecycle?
This is when the system is tested against the user requirements.
What is the implementation of the systems life cycle?
This is the part of the systems lifecycle where you actually implement the system.…read more

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Analysis of documents means that you can find out exactly what information you need, however you
don't get any opinions.
What are systems flowcharts and data flow diagrams?
Systems flowcharts are diagrams that show how the elements of a system are associated with each
other and how they interact, they also show the flow of data and the inputs and outputs from the
system.…read more

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What is the concept of prototyping?
Prototypes are a mockup of the a finished system and may only have some functioning parts. If at
various stages of the development process the client is show a prototype they can have an idea for
where the system is heading and they can reject ideas and this will save time and money for the
developer.…read more

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Operating systems provide a user interface and they protect the hardware from illegal access as well
as letting it communicate with the software in a safe way and provides a platform for applications to
run on/
Batch processing OS is used where all the inputs and outputs are similar so they can be gathered and
processed in a batch so no human intervention is required we use this for things such as payrolls.…read more

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OCR: a scanned image is broken down into letter sized chunks and each chunk is compared to a
letter pattern and then this makes it much faster than typing, however this has poor accuracy and
errors would have to be corrected manually.
OMR: usually papers are preprinted with spaces and instructions to put the mark on the sheet and
each space for a mark has a specific meaning.…read more

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Archiving data isn't used for retrieving a file if something goes
wrong it is used for storing little used or redundant data in case it is ever needed again.…read more

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What are the different types of primary memory and their uses?
RAM is random access memory and this means that data can be accessed immediately, the data is
volatile which means that it disappears as soon as the computer's power is turned off. The programs,
data and the operating system are held in the RAM and the processor can only access the instructions
which are held here.…read more

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Optical character recognition is a scanner which recognises patterns with characters and this uses up
less memory than an image.
Optical mark recognition is when there are preset places for markings to be made and each mark has
a value and this can be read by computers.
Scanners use reflection from a source of light to then convert a printed image into a digital and it is
typically used to reproduce art work.
Monitors display computer generated images as a series of pixels.…read more

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The bit rate which is needed can be reduced by making the file size smaller using compression
What are parity checks and check sums?
Parity checks are when you use either an odd or even parity and this is a method of error correction
because you can check if all the bits have either the odd number of 1s or 0s or even.…read more


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