Computing Fundamentals (F451 OCR)

Here are 23 pages of extensive notes on the not-so-obvious bits of the OCR F451 syllabus (for the January 2010 exam).

As always, these notes were written for me to revise from, and so there may be bits that are not covered as much as you need to learn them in, or there may be bits that are covered in nauseating detail for you because you are already 100% familiar with them.

Original document is a Word 2007 (.docx) which if you want, email me and I will send you a copy.

These notes cover all six topics within Unit 1:

  1. Components of a Computer System
  2. Software
  3. Data: Its Representation, Structure and Management in Information Systems
  4. Hardware
  5. Data Transmission
  6. Implications of Computer Use
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  • Created by: Jackarias
  • Created on: 29-12-09 21:15

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Page 1

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F


Components of a Computer System (3.1.1)
Hardware: physical parts of a computer system
o Three categories: input devices, storage devices and output devices

All systems need instructions of some sort which generally come from the user.
Some systems…

Page 2

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F



Problem Definition
· Define problem the
system is to
Maintenance overcome
· Problems cleared;
tweaks to improve Feasibility Study
system; data
· Looks at alternative
backed up;
solutions
peripherals
upgraded; relocate
system




Information
Installation Collection
· How to…

Page 3

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F


The waterfall model is one model of the cycle in which progress is seen as flowing
steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of:
1. Conception
2. Initiation
3. Analysis
4. Design (Validation)
5. Construction
6. Testing…

Page 4

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F


Operating systems (OS)...
o Provide a platform on which applications can run
o Control hardware
o Allow communication with the outside world


:: SIX TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM

SINGLE USER ­ one user at a time.

MULTI USER…

Page 5

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F


One of the purposes of the operating system is to provide a human-computer
interface which lets users tell the computer what to do, and allows the computer to
ask the user for input or to display results.

o…

Page 6

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F


System utilities are programs that perform specific functions (generally
maintenance).
Some tasks that system utilities carry out include...


COMPRESSION FILE CONVERSION KEEPING CONFIGURATION
System utility programs File extensions are related to FILES
convert data into a format specific…

Page 7

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F


Some information is stored in computers as numbers in base 16.
This is called hexadecimal (or just hex).
Principles are exactly the same as for denary, binary, octal or any other base.


If you have to be able…

Page 8

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F


Using -75, it goes from 01001011 (in binary) to 11001011 as the first bit changes its
meaning ­ i.e. it no longer stands for "128" but instead "+/-".

This is called sign/magnitude representation because the byte is in…

Page 9

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F


-128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 75
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 14
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 =89
CARRY ==> 1…

Page 10

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Computing Fundamentals
OCR F451 Written Exam (January 2010)
:: Jack Bennett, 12F


Designed to include all the symbols that are used throughout the world including all
Arabic, Chinese and Japanese characters.
It is constantly growing in size as more and more characters are accepted.

Data can be collected in a…

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