F325 Definitions

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F325 Definitions
Acid ­ Base Pair A pair of two species that transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton.
Brønsted Lowry Acid A species that is a proton H+ donor.
Brønsted Lowry Base A species that is a proton H+ acceptor.
Buffer Solution A system that minimises pH change on addition of small amounts of an acid or alkali.
Complex Ion A transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligands by a coordinate bond.
Coordination Number The total number of coordinate bonds that are formed between a central metal ion and any
ligand.
Dynamic Equilibrium The equilibrium that exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to
the rate of the reverse reaction.
End Point The point in a titration at which there are equal concentrations of the weak acid and conjugate
base forms of the indicator. The indicator at the end point is midway between the colours of the
acid and conjugate base forms.
Enthalpy Change of Atomisation The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of gaseous atoms forms from the element in
its standard states.
Entropy The quantitative measure of the degree of disorder in a system.
Equilibrium Law For the equilibrium:
aA + bB cC + dD
Equivalence Point The point in a titration at which the volume of one solution has reacted exactly with the volume
of the second solution.
First Electron Affinity The enthalpy change that accompanies the addition one electron to each atom in one mole of
gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1- atoms.
First Ionisation Energy The energy to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one
mole of gaseous 1+ ion.
Free Energy Change The balance between enthalpy, entropy and temperature for a process:

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Process can only be spontaneous when:
Half-Life The time taken for the concentration of a reactant to reduce by half.
Hess' Law If a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final conditions are the
same, the total enthalpy change for both routes are the same.
Heterogeneous Catalysis A reaction where the catalyst has a different physical state from the reactants.…read more

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Second Electron Affinity The enthalpy change that accompanies the addition one electron to each atom in one mole of
gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 2- atoms.
Second Ionisation Energy The energy to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one
mole of gaseous 2+ions.
Stability Constant The equilibrium constant for an equilibrium existing between a transition metal ion surrounded by
water ligands and the complex formed when the same ion has undergone a substitution reaction.…read more

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