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ARGUMENTS AGAINST GOD­ EVIL AND SUFFERING
THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM
Theism is the belief that "the world was created by an omnipotent and perfectly good personal being". From
this 5 facts are highlighted of a Theist's belief...

1. There is only one God
2. God created the world ­…

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God creation is flawed and according to some, created evil. Even if you do not believe humans are the cause of
evil, they still carry out evil acts on each-other such as Murder and Rape.




J.L. MACKIE ­ An outspoken Atheist, also a compatibilist (believed we are both determined and…

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Religious believers want to be able to uphold the traditional idea of God alongside evil. This lead to the
development of theodicies; a justification of God alongside the existence of Evil.

AUGUSTINE'S THEODICY
A classical Biblical response to the existence of evil.

God is wholly good and created a world…

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BRIAN DAVIS ­ Supports that evil cannot be a substance. It is not valid to blame God for creating it.
The argument that evil is a result of human free will rather than God's will can be supported. If God gave humans
Free Will, this necessarily entails the possibility of…

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IRENAEUS' THEODICY
Unlike Augustine, Irenaeus accepted God is partly responsible for evil as he created humans imperfect in order
for them to develop into perfection. Uses Bible as evidence, like Augustine.

"Let us make man in our image, after our likeness".
Man is made in the image of God to…

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If the world were a paradise (no harm come to anyone) ­ humans not free, every action would result in
happiness. Evil would be indistinguishable from good = result in same thing.
Humans like robots. With no real evil, everyone would follow God as there would be no difficulty doing…

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PAST EXAM QUESTIONS
Jan 2009
1a. Explain why Irenaeus argues that the existence of evil is a necessary part of the universe. [25]
1b. "Irenaeus is wrong: evil disproves the existence of God" Discuss. [10]

Jan 2011
1a. Explain why Irenaeus argues that the existence of evil is a necessary…

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