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Offending ­ Official Statistics
According to official statistics:
· Black people are 2x more likely to be cautioned,
3.5x more likely to be arrested and 5x more likely
to be arrested
· Asian people are more likely to be charged than
to receive a caution
But its important to remember that:
· It could reflect arrest rates rather than offending rates
· Offenders are more likely to be between 14 and 25, and both black and Asian
groups have a large population within this age range
· Young Black British youths tend to be in worse paid jobs/ unemployed than
White youths…read more

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Offending ­ Victimization
Studies
According to the British crime survey:
· Most crime is intraracial
· 88% of white victims claim that white offenders
were involved
· 42% of crimes against black people were
committed by black offenders
But its important to remember that:
· There's a higher white population
· Most criminals don't see the offender so may just assume the offender is a
certain race based on stereotypes…read more

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Policing and Ethnic Minority
groups
· It's clear there is a considerable difference
between the arrest rates of ethnic minority
groups and Whites.
· All sociologists reject the idea that race and
crime are associated
· Some sociologists argue that there is a over-
representation of ethnic minority groups simply
because they're more likely to have a poorer
background and that most crime is performed by
young males from poor backgrounds…read more

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Are there racist police practices?
Other sociologists argue that higher arrest
rates are due to racist practices.
Some argue that there are The canteen culture approach suggests that police officers
some racist individuals in have developed their own distinctive values due to their job
the police but that once being socially isolated
these `bad apples' are Reiner (1992) ­ this culture includes racism
removed the police force Smith and Gray (1985) ­ racist views amongst police led to
will no longer be racist stop and searched on these youth
Some argue that the police are institutionally racist.
Philips and Bowling (2002):
· There is direct racial discrimination which involves:
· The way arrests are made, the discrimination when sentencing and the over
representation of minority groups in prisons
· There is indirect racial discrimination which involves:
· Ethnic minority's are more likely to mistrust the police so are more likely to
cooperate
· The social position of these groups makes prison more likely…read more

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THEORIZING RACE AND CRIMINALITY…read more

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