The ethnicity and crime debate has addressed two key questions:
1. Why are some ethnic groups, especially Black groups, more likely to be criminalised?
2. Are some ethnic groups more likely to be victimised than others?
We cannot reach a definite conclusion as to whether there are ethnic differences in the rate of offending. For specific offences, such as mugging, there is some evidence of a higher rate of offending by Black ethnic groups.
There is clear evidence of racial discrimination at various stages of the CJS.
It is likely that ethnic differences in rates of offending and a discriminatory CJS combine to produce ethnic differences in criminalisation
Ethnic minority groups face a higher risk of victimisation and suffer disproportionately from racially motivated offences.
As a result, they are more likely to express fear of crime than other groups