RE ethics mindmap

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  • Created by: abbie*
  • Created on: 22-02-15 12:56
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  • R.E. Ethics
    • Jeremy Bentham
      • Benthams 3 theories
        • His view on what drove human beings and what goodness and badness is about
      • Act Utilitarianism
        • Strenghts and Weaknesses
          • Strenghts
            • Humansitic
              • Basis = max. human goal, not seek authority; grounded in humanity and does not see authority.
            • Cultural diversity
              • each cultire allowed to operate equally
            • Intuitvely correct
              • Common sense dictates all situations not identicle and sometimes different appraoch is needed.
            • Yard Stick
              • Bentham not against moral rules; principle of utility = method of social reform
          • Weaknesses
            • Impossible to make calculations required
              • Rule of thumb,can't apply calculus to evey situation.
            • People need rules
              • If you allow people to lie etc becomes too great a temptation e.g. to lie to avoid looking bad.
            • Quantitive rather than qualitative in nature
            • Does not treat everybody equally
              • In a true sense of equality, they are only equal in that their vote matters. Minority groups will therefore always be at a disadvantage
            • Doctrine of negative repsonsibility
              • We are respnsible for the forseeable consequenceof the choices we make
                • Sometimes we choose to act sometimes we don't either way we are responsible for our actions.
            • Potential to justify any action
              • E.g. sadistic guards torturing a wrongly imprisoned man
                • Even though this is wrong the pleasure the guards recieve outweigh the unhappiness of the man
    • John Stuart Mill
      • Basic Information
        • He established rule utilitriansim
        • One calculates what is right by comparing the conse-quences for a particular circumstance This is done by comparing all relevant similar circumstan-ces or settings at any time.
        • Wellbeing of the individual = greatest importance, effectively gained.
        • Accepted the utility principle; concerned about the difficulty raised
          • Sadistic guards example
  • Benthams 3 theories
    • His view on what drove human beings and what goodness and badness is about
  • The principle of utility which is his moral rule
    • The Hedonic calculus
      • Bentham thought previous experiences did not always help us make moral choices and each situation was different so had to be calcuated afresh.
        • Act Utilitarianism
          • Strenghts and Weaknesses
            • Strenghts
              • Humansitic
                • Basis = max. human goal, not seek authority; grounded in humanity and does not see authority.
              • Cultural diversity
                • each cultire allowed to operate equally
              • Intuitvely correct
                • Common sense dictates all situations not identicle and sometimes different appraoch is needed.
              • Yard Stick
                • Bentham not against moral rules; principle of utility = method of social reform
            • Weaknesses
              • Impossible to make calculations required
                • Rule of thumb,can't apply calculus to evey situation.
              • People need rules
                • If you allow people to lie etc becomes too great a temptation e.g. to lie to avoid looking bad.
              • Quantitive rather than qualitative in nature
              • Does not treat everybody equally
                • In a true sense of equality, they are only equal in that their vote matters. Minority groups will therefore always be at a disadvantage
              • Doctrine of negative repsonsibility
                • We are respnsible for the forseeable consequenceof the choices we make
                  • Sometimes we choose to act sometimes we don't either way we are responsible for our actions.
              • Potential to justify any action
                • E.g. sadistic guards torturing a wrongly imprisoned man
                  • Even though this is wrong the pleasure the guards recieve outweigh the unhappiness of the man
      • According to Act Utilitarianism when determining whether an act is right or not it is the value of the consequence that matters.
        • For example a morther may steal to save the lives of her starving children
      • For example a morther may steal to save the lives of her starving children

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