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Environmental Ethics ­ Main Thinkers
Aarne Naess
Aldo Leopold
Rachel Carson
James Lovelock
Peter Singer…read more

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Aarne Naess
Proposed two ecological movements:
Deep ecology ­ everything in the environment is equal.
Nature has intrinsic value
Shallow ecology ­ concerned with using the earths
resources for the gain of humans
Nature does not exist to serve humans ­ every living thing has
an equal right to survive (known as ecosophy)
Does not agree with the religious view of stewardship ­
`arrogant and selfish'
Thinks that in order to prevent further damage we should
drastically decrease our population ­ surely we have just as
much right to reproduce as any other species…read more

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Aldo Leopold
`Land ethic'
Complex ecosystem which, if destroyed, could cause
serious damage therefore we need to look after the
We need the environment to survive
Humans need to consider the environment as it has
intrinsic value ­ we are not better than nature, we are
part of nature
Humans are equal to everything else in nature - is
this the case? Humans are more cognitively
developed than animals and plants…read more

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Rachel Carson
The fate of one species affects the
fate of another, humans included ­
there have been some animals that
have become extinct that don't
appear to have made much of a
The environment is getting damaged
the more humans are trying to
dominate the earth…read more

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James Lovelock ­ Gaia Hypothesis
Gaia ­ Greek goddess of the world
The idea that the word is one entity which is
dependent on everything on it ­ therefore it
is valuable
Evident as the world always seems to favour
life ­ Life has returned to Chernobyl since
the disaster
We are not superior as Gaia would still exist
without us…read more

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