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Slide 2

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How are electrons arranged?
·Electrons are arranged around the Orbital Max Electrons in orbital
Nucleus in SHELLS
·The Octet Rule : that 1st shell has two s 2
electron but the next shell has 8 e¯ p 6
·Electrons are found in orbital's. Each d 10
orbital has a specific amount of
f 14
electrons it can hold (see table on the
left). It is categorized into orbital's
called "spdf"
·Each period in the periodic table tells
you how many shells there are
indicating how many orbital's.
The shells that are filled first are 1s, 2s, 2p,
3s, 3p, 4s. 3d, 4p, etc
For example, Mn (Manganese) ­ 1s(2),
2s(2), 2p(6), 3s(2), 3p(6), 4s(2), 3d(5)…read more

Slide 3

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· Something that affects the
filling of orbitals is the
electron spin
· An electron can spin either
clockwise or anticlockwise
and can be represented by a
small arrow pointing up () to
represent spin in one
direction and down () to
represent spin in the
opposite direction.
· Two electrons in the same
orbital cannot have the
same spin. This means
each orbital can contain a
maximum of two electrons…read more

Slide 4

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Hund's Rule
When assigning electrons in
orbital's, each electron will first
fill all the orbital's with similar
energy before pairing with
another electron in a half-filled
orbital. Atoms at ground states
tend to have as many unpaired
electrons as possible. When
visualizing this processes, think
about how electrons are
exhibiting the same behaviour as
the same poles on a magnet
would if they came into contact;
as the negatively charged
electrons fill orbital's they first
try to get as far as possible from
each other before having to pair
up.…read more

Slide 5

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·It can get very confusing once
you reach the transition
metals. This is because you get
something called half filled
orbital's. These exceptions can
be found in the transition
metals (between group 2&3)
·The reason these exceptions
occur is because some
elements are more stable with
less electrons in some sub Chromium and copper have electron
shells and more electrons configurations [Ar] 3d5 4s1 and [Ar] 3d10 4s1
within others. respectively, i.e. one electron has passed from
the 4s-orbital to a 3d-orbital to generate a half-
filled or filled sub shell. In this case, the usual
explanation is that "half-filled or completely
filled sub shells are particularly stable
arrangements of electrons".…read more

Slide 6

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S orbital's are in a sphere shape on the axis. Having a 1s then 2s means that the
sphere just increases in size as shown in the diagram below.…read more

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