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Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) ­ Democrat
Democrats believe in government intervention and centralised power. They prefer federal
legislation to local ones. They recognise that the economy is too complex for individuals to navigate
on their own; therefore government should guide business decisions. They also implement taxes to
enable government intervention.

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Industrial production increased by 39%, and farmers profiteered massively as the exported
300% more to allied countries and prices doubled. Overall, unemployment dropped and 1.3
million found work as a result of war.

Effects of the war on society:

Selective service saw 3 million men called to o fight, overall…

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Warren Harding (1921-1923) ­ Republican

Appointed very strong people such as Andrew Mellon- Treasury Secretary and Herbert
Hoover as Secretary of Commerce. In Wilson's term government spending increased from
$500 mn in 1913 to $5000 mn in 1920. Harding passed the Budgeting and accounting act to
increase federal aid…

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rural poverty and women's inequality in the workplace as they needed a minimum wage- but never
acted to improve conditions. Just tactical way of ensuring voters in the elections.

General points ­ BOOM

The 20's were also known as the Jazz age because it was an era of indulgence, change…

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1929- St Valentine's day massacre- 6 killed by Al Capone's gang- violence in society
High demand- charge high prices- cost of highball increased from 15 cents in 1915- $3 in
1920. Al Capone- earned $60million by 1927 (allowing gangland dominance over society as
bribery of government officials and police offers…

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Urbanisation- 1920 census showed for first time more people living in towns than villages.
People living in rural areas saw this as a threat to American way of life- people in towns `wild
and sinful'. One of many divides within society. Old vs New- rural (traditional) v urban

Who shared…

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Problems with the economy (making the depression more likely)

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Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) ­ Republican
Very determined to stick to his principles of `rugged individualism' and `voluntarism'. He would never
shift from his fundamental beliefs. Ignored warnings about the economy- tried to make few
interventions during the depression- some argue this was too little too late whereas his right wing…

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received less tax because employment was increasing. Charities could only provide 6% of necessarily
relief, state couldn't help and federal didn't. (In 1932 Hoover set aside funds)

As a result by, 1932 2 million Hoboes lived in shanty towns which were nicknamed Hooverville's.
28% receiving no income not including 11…

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Roosevelt got new deal ideas from)

Hoover was seen as aloof but he did care and tried to implement policies. He rigidly stuck to his
beliefs, but gave up his own money to help (maybe not being cruel- he genuinely believed it was for
the best). He seemed distant when…




This is an incredibly detailed set of notes on US political and economic developments from Woodrom Wilson to Dwight Eisenhower. There is a great deal of factual information and and even key historical perspectives from different historians on the key controversies, making this particularly useful for A2 Unit 4.



Really helpful

thank you


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