Education Sociologists/Perspectives and What They Say

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Sociology ­ Education
Topic Name/Perspective Idea
Social class Feinstein Reason for failure= w/c parents lack
EXTERNAL FACTORS of interest (unlikely to give
Cultural deprivation educational toys/activities or read to
them)> begin school at
Reason 2= m/c parents tend to be
better educated + socialise children
into thinking positively about
education too
Bernstein Restricted code= limited vocab,
context bound = w/c / Elaborate
code= extended vocab, analytical
ideas, context free = m/c
Douglas W/c parents value education less so
don't encourage kids
Sugarman W/c subculture has different beliefs,
goals + attitudes (immediate
gratification, fatalistic, present time
orientated, collectivism)
Evaluation of cultural Keddie Cultural deprivation = myth > w/c =
deprivation culturally different, not deprived
Troyna & Williams Schools attitude towards w/c
language is issue as they don't help
Blackstone & Mortimore Reject view that all w/c parents
don't care about education
Material explanation Blanden & Machin W/c have more external behaviour
problems which disrupts schooling
Bull `Free' schooling has a price of trips +
resources that w/c parents cant
Flaherty 20% w/c don't take up free school
meals due to stigma
Callender & Jackson W/c 5X less likely to apply to uni as
family less able to support
Recay W/c = higher dropout rate
Cultural capital Bourdieu M/c have cultural capital necessary
explanation for achievement (economic,
educational, cultural) / w/c have
cultural deficit + teachers attach no
importance to w/c experiences over
INTERNAL FACTORS Becker M/c students = closer to teachers
Labelling view of an ideal pupil (in terms of
work, appearance and behaviour)

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Dunne & Gazely Teachers have low expectations of
w/c pupils + labelled parents as
uninterested / m/c parents =
Rist Teachers place `fast learners' at
front of class > m/c fast learners get
more help and encouragement
Selffulfilment Rosenthal & Jacobsen Fake IQ test > tell teacher 20% =
prophecy bloomers >1 year later 47%
bloomers do better than rest of class
Steaming Youdell & Gilborn DEA due to teachers low
expectations > place in low stream
(deny knowledge + opportunity to
get best…read more

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Girls changing Sharpe Compared interviews > 1970s = low
ambitions aspirations + saw success as
unfeminine + wanted marriage +
children more 1990s = see future as
independent woman + want career
more than being dependent on
Identity and class Archer W/c girls achieve status from peers
by being hyperheterosexual +
feminine > conflicts with school
which prevents them gaining
educational capital
Bourdieu W/c girls denied symbolic capital in
education > calls this symbolic
Evaluation Feminists Liberal = positive about progress
resulting from…read more

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Paetcher Sport = male gender domain > if
girls enjoy, they are seen as butch so
opt for other subjects
Double standards Lee Boys boast about sexual
experiences/girls negatively labelled
for same behaviour
Verbal abuse Paetcher Namecalling shapes identitites as
labelling others can control their
identity (gay)
Male peer groups Ghaill Macho lads = dismissive of other w/c
boys who work hard to achieve good
Teachers discipline Hayward Male teachers tell boys off for
`behaving like girls' + teased when
get lower grades
Evaluation…read more

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English well)
Pupil identities Archer Minority pupils lack characteristics
of a teachers ideal pupil
Pupil responses + Mirza When black girls experience teacher
subcultures racism > they tried to avoid
negative consequences of their
behaviour > failed + disadvantaged
Sewell Responses to negative label =
retreatists, conformists, innovators,
Critical race theory Gilborn Institutional racism= so deep rooted
(distinguish between that it is an inevitable feature of
individual teacher education system (schools more
racism + institutional likely to select white pupils)
Social Policy…read more

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Davis & Moore Role allocation school assesses
(functionalist) abilities + makes sure most
important roles in society are filled
with most talented people
Althusser Bourgeoisie maintain class division
(marxist) through Repressive State Apparatus
(power through threat of
forcepolice) and Ideological State
Apparatus (control proletariats
beliefs through social institutions
like education)
Bowles & Gintis Correspondence principle= learn
(marxist) lessons that they carry into
workplace to make them obedient
workers > operates through hidden
curriculum(lessons learnt without
direct teaching) > hierarchy of
authority, alienation through lack of…read more

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