What is marking point 2 from topic 2 specification
Explain how models such as the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes are interpretations of data used to develop scientific explanations of the structure and properties of cell membranes.
What is marking point 3 from topic 2?
Explain what is meant by osmosis in terms of the movement of free water molecules through a partially permeable membrane (consideration of water potential is not required).
What is marking point 4 from topic 2?
Explain what is meant by passive transport (diffusion, facilitated diffusion), active transport (including the role of ATP), endocytosis and exocytosis and describe the involvement of carrier and channel proteins in membrane transport.
What is marking points 5, 6 and 7 from topic 2?
Describe how membrane structure can be investigated practically, eg by the effect of alcohol concentration or temperature on membrane permeability.
Describe the properties of gas exchange surfaces in living organisms (large surface area to volume ratio, thickness of surface, difference in concentration) and explain how the structure of the mammalian lung is adapted for rapid gaseous exchange.
Describe the basic structure of an amino acid (structures of specific amino acids are not required) and the formation of polypeptides and proteins (as amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds in condensation reactions) and explain the significance of a protein’s primary structure in determining its three-dimensional structure and properties (globularand fibrous proteins and types of bonds involved in threedimensional structure).
What are marking points 8,9 and 10 from topic 2
Explain the mechanism of action and specificity of enzymes in terms of their three-dimensional structure and explain that enzymes are biological catalysts that reduce activation energy, catalysing a wide range of intracellular and extracellular reactions.
Describe how enzyme concentrations can affect the rates of reactions and how this can be investigated practically by measuring the initial rate of reaction.
Describe the basic structure of mononucleotides (as a deoxyribose or ribose linked to a phosphate and a base, ie thymine, uracil, cytosine, adenine or guanine) and the structures of DNA and RNA (as polynucleotides composed of mononucleotides linked through condensation reactions) and describe how complementary base pairing and the hydrogen bonding between two complementary strands are involved in the formation of the DNA double helix.
What are marking points 11,12 and 13 from topic 2
Describe DNA replication (including the role of DNA polymerase), and explain how Meselson and Stahl’s classic experiment provided new data that supported the accepted theory of replication of DNA and refuted competing theories.
Explain the nature of the genetic code (triplet code only; nonoverlapping and degenerate not required at AS).
Describe a gene as being a sequence of bases on a DNA molecule coding for a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
What are marking points 14,15 and 16 from topic 2
Outline the process of protein synthesis, including the role of transcription, translation, messenger RNA, transfer RNA and the template (antisense) DNA strand (details of the mechanism of protein synthesis on ribosomes are not required at AS).
Explain how errors in DNA replication can give rise to mutations and explain how cystic fibrosis results from one of a number of possible gene mutations.
Explain the terms gene, allele, genotype, phenotype, recessive, dominant, homozygote and heterozygote, and explain monohybrid inheritance, including the interpretation of genetic pedigree diagrams, in the context of traits such as cystic fibrosis, albinism, thalassaemia, garden pea height and seed morphology.
What are marking points 17,18, 19 and 20 from 2
Explain how the expression of a gene mutation in people with cystic fibrosis impairs the functioning of the gaseous exchange, digestive and reproductive systems.
Describe the principles of gene therapy and distinguish between somatic and germ line therapy.
Explain the uses of genetic screening: identification of carriers, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal testing (amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling) and discuss the implications of prenatal genetic screening.
Identify and discuss the social and ethical issues related to genetic screening from a range of ethical viewpoints.