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Monosaccharides
· These are single unit sugar molecules:
· Glucose
· Fructose
· Galactose
· With Edexcel, you do not need to know their chemical structure i.
e. the complex hexagonal diagrams.
· Just remember:
· In the exam, if it questions states to name a monosaccharide found
in food, do not put Galactose because it is only found in breast
milk.…read more

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Disaccharides
· These are double unit sugar molecules
· When you combine:
­ Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
­ Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
­ Glucose + Galactose = Lactose
· Again, you do not need to know how these molecules combine, you
just need to remember which ones go with which.…read more

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Polysaccharides
· These type of carbohydrates can be subdivided
into:
­ complex and simple polysaccharides.
· Simple polysaccharides consist of long chains of
one type of monosaccharide; in this case the
monosaccharide is always glucose.
· Complex polysaccharides are long chains which
contain a combination of different
monosaccharides.…read more

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Simple polysaccharides
· Amylose and Amylopectin
­ Amylose is a long chain of glucose molecules.
· Flour naturally contains amylose.
­ It is broken down by the enzyme amylase, which is naturally
found in our saliva.
­ Amylopectin's structure, on the other hand, is branched.
­ Although, you do not need to know how these polysaccharides are
formed, just remember that these are held together by alpha links.…read more

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Glycogen and Cellulose
­ Glycogen has a similar structure to amylopectin.
­ Glycogen is the human storage of starch, which gives our body
a supply of instant energy.
­ Cellulose has a similar structure to amylose.
­ It supplies us with fibre or NSP (Non Starch Polysaccharide).
­ NSP absorbs water in our body, making digestion of food easier.
­ The chains are held by beta links.
· Therefore, it is not starch because amylose is held by alpha
links, although the two structures lookalike.…read more

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