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Chapter 1.3

A mass spectrometer finds the relative atomic mass of an atom.

The sample must be in a The vapour is bombarded with high The ions are
gaseous state. The sample is energy electrons which collide with accelerated by an
injected into the mass the atoms of the sample.…

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Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.

Elements in the same period have the same number of electron shells. E.g. elements in period 1
have one shell; those in period 2 have 2 shells etc.




Elements in the s block have outer…

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The atomic radius generally decreases across a period ­ As you go across a period, the effective
nuclear charge increases as the number of protons in the nucleus increases. The number of electrons
also increases, but the outer electrons are all in the same shell, so they are attracted more…

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