Unit 1 chemistry edexcel 2008 all notes (unfinished)

I started this but did not have time to finish, was still very useful for me and may be good to do own research on areas not done. In depth and thorough on parts done colour coded.

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  • Created on: 02-06-11 12:33
Preview of Unit 1 chemistry edexcel 2008 all notes (unfinished)

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Unit 1notes:
1.3: Formula, equations and amounts of substance
A. Demonstrate an understanding of the terms atom, element, ion,
molecule, compound, empirical and molecular formulae
CompoundA chemical compound is a pure chemical substance consisting of two or more different
chemical elements that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions
MoleculeA molecule is defined as an electrically neutral group of at least two atoms in a definite
arrangement held together by very strong (covalent) chemical bonds. Molecules are distinguished
from polyatomic ions in this strict sense
Atomthe smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element and the
atom is a basic unit of matter consisting of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of
negatively charged electrons
ElementA chemical element is a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom
distinguished by its atomic number, which is the number of protons in its nucleus. The term is also
used to refer to a pure chemical substance composed of atoms with the same number of protons
IonA particle that is electrically charged positively/negatively where it has gained/lost electrons. So
the number of protons does not equal the number of electrons.
EmpiricalThe simplest ratio of elements in a substance. For example: CH2O (Actually is below).
Molecular FormulaHas a mass equal to the molar mass of the substance. It is either the empirical or
a whole number multiple of it. For example: C6H12O6
B. Write balanced equations (full and ionic) for simple reactions including state symbols.
See worksheets for majority.
Examples:
H3PO4(aq)+3LiOH(aq) Li3PO4(aq)+3H2O(l)
3H(+)(aq)+PO4(3)(aq)+3Li(+)(aq)+3OH()(aq) 3Li(+)(aq)+PO4(3)(aq)+3H2O(l)
3H(+)(aq)+3OH()(aq) 3H2O(l)
H(+)(aq)+OH()(aq) H2O(l)
C.Understanding of the terms relative atomic mass, amounts of substance, molar mass and parts per
million (PPM).
Relative atomic massAverage mass of the atoms of all isotopes of that element found naturally.
Amounts of substance
Molar massSymbol M which is the mass in grams of one mole of any substance (element or
compound)
Parts per million (PPM)One part per million is equal to one milligram per litre. 387ppm = 387cm3
per million cm3 of air for example

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D. Calculate the amount of substance in a solution of known concentration (excluding titration
calculations at this stage). For example use data from the concentrations of the various species in
blood samples to perform calculations in mol dm3.…read more

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Avogadro's number is 6.022x1023, in 12grams of Carbon 12 there will be 6.022x1023 atoms of
Carbon as there is precisely one mole of it. A mole is defined as the amount of that substance that
contains the same number of stated elementary units (atoms molecules etc) as the atoms in 12grams
of Carbon 12. So it is always in relation to the number of moles of Carbon 12 when we have one
mole of Carbon.…read more

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C. Recall the sign of H for exothermic and endothermic reactions. For example illustrated by the
use of exo and endothermic reactions in hot and cold packs
What?
D. Recall the definition of standard enthalpy changes of reaction, formation, combustion,
neutralization and atomization and use experimental data to calculate energy transferred in a reaction
and hence the enthalpy change of the reaction.…read more

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E. Recall Hess's Law and apply it to calculating enthalpy changes of reaction from data provided,
selected from a table of data or obtained from experiments and understand why standard data is
necessary to carry out calculations of this type
For formation the arrows both point to the element as they occur naturally, and also being balanced.
For Combustion both arrows point towards the elements as they occur naturally, as when they are
heated with oxygen they will form either side of the equations.…read more

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Deduce the relative atomic mass of an element
iii) Measure the relative molecular mass of a compound…read more

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Ryan

poor, would not read 0/10

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