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Naomi Cockrill




Intramolecular and Intermolecular Bonding
Bonding, whether intramolecular or intermolecular, is present in all chemical compounds or
molecules. Intramolecular bonding comprises a broad spectrum of bonding types, of which ionic and
covalent bonding are the two extremes. Often, intramolecular bonds affect which intermolecular forces are
present and together these…

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Naomi Cockrill




atoms slide past one another and as soon as the ions are aligned with ions of the same charge, repulsion
causes the layers to break apart.
In addition to properties of ionic compounds, other evidence can be seen
by analysing the electron density diagrams of a highly ionic…

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Naomi Cockrill




Haber values to the theoretical values, showing that these compounds fit the `purely ionic' model. However,
the Born-Haber values for magnesium halides are much lower than the theoretical values, indicating the
bonding is stronger than the `purely ionic' model accounts for and that the charge is not evenly…

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Naomi Cockrill




forces have to be overcome and so are generally liquids and gases at room temperature. On an electron
density map, there is merging between the two atoms, demonstrating the sharing of electrons. Giant
covalent molecules, like silicon dioxide or graphite, contain a network of covalent bonds (as silicon…

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Naomi Cockrill




the ionic bond is polarised and if the difference is only small, then it is a covalent bond that is polar ( has a
negative and positive end.) This is the case for the bonds in carbon dioxide as the oxygen molecules are
much more electronegative than the…

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Naomi Cockrill




molecules are aligned and attracted to one another. However, these instantaneous-induced dipoles are only
temporary but, on average, there is an attraction across the whole molecule. As London forces depend on
the presence of electrons, the bigger the molecule, the more electrons there are, the greater the electrical…

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