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ANSWERS

1. Net movement of any molecule from a high concentration to low concentration across a
partially permeable membrane. Continues until equilibrium. Small uncharged polar molecules.
2. Due to the random movement of molecules
3. Down
4. Dynamic equilibrium
5. Millions of alveoli, folded to increase surface area, good blood…

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RNA helicase unwinds double helix/unzips DNA/breaks H bonds
RNA polymerase inserts free complementary RNA nucleotides to the exposed DNA
nucleotides/occurs on only 1 of the strands (template)/ T is replaced with U
RNA strand breaks away from template and leaves nucleus via nuclear pore/called mRNA
(messenger)
RNA ligase reforms sugar-phosphate…

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Amniocentesis ­ cells from amniotic fluid
Chorionic villus sampling ­ cells from the placental tissue
46. Moral ­ opinion Ethic ­ reasoned explanation
47. Homozygous ­ same Heterozygous ­ different
48.
Nasal/oral cavity
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchus
Bronchioles
Alveoli ­ gaseous exchange
49.
Isotonic ­ looses the same amount as…

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Open Insect Large open Simple as few Insufficient for
chamber organs diffusion
No tubes

Single closed Fish Tubes Simple Less efficient for
Heart with 2 High pressure gas exchange
chambers

Double closed Birds + mammals Tubes High and low More tubes and
Heart with 4 pressure system effort
chambers



55.…

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11. Aorta

57. One complete sequence of filling and pumping blood - Chambers of the heart alternatively
contract (systole) and relax (diastole)
58.
1. Atrial systole ­ atria's contract pumping blood through the semi lunar valves to the
ventricles
2. Ventricular systole ­ ventricles contract pumping blood up through the…

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2. Thromboplastin triggers conversion of prothrombin (soluble protein) into thrombin (an
enzyme)

3. Thrombin catalyses the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin

4. The fibrin fibres tangle and form a mesh which traps platelets and red bloods cells to form
a clot



64. Obesity/high BP/high blood cholesterol/inactivity/smoking/genes/age/gender/salt/stress
65.
Case ­ group…

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Amylose ­ straight chain 1, 4 glycosidic links + Amylopectin ­ branched 1, 6 glycosidic links

72.




73.

Saturated ­ straight chain, single bonds, animal fats and dairy products, solid at RT

Unsaturated - kinked, double bonds, liquid at RT

74.


HDL LDL
Stands for: Stands for:
High Density Lipoprotein…

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76.
APOA ­ major protein in HDL, mutations are associated with low HDL levels +
reduced removal of cholesterol from blood, increasing risk of CHD
APOB ­ major protein in LDL, mutations associated with higher levels of LDL +
increased risk of CHD
APOE ­ found in HDL + LDL,…

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