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Organs affected by cystic fibrosis:

Sinuses
Sinusitis (infection)
Lungs
Thick, sticky mucus build up, bacterial infection and widened airways
Skin
Sweat glands produce salty sweat
Liver
Blocked biliary ducts
Pancreas
Blocked pancreatic ducts
Intestines
Cannot fully absorb nutrients
Reproductive organs
(male and female) complications

Order in which air flows through…

Page 2

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Diffusion:

Net movement of molecules from an area of a high concentration to a area of low
concentration across a partially permeable membrane
Due to the random movement of molecules
The molecules move down their concentration gradient
Until dynamic equilibrium is reached

Protein structure:




There are 20 different R groups…

Page 3

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A chain of amino acids is a polypeptide chain

The 4 structures:




Fick's Law:




Membrane structure:

Phospholipids
Main component of a membrane

Phosphate head

Page 4

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hydrophilic
interacts with water
attracted to polar water molecules

Lipid tail
hydrophobic
does not interact with water
not attracted to polar water
molecules

Cell membrane
arranged into a bilayer 7nm thick
aqueous solution on either side maintains the
arrangement



Fluid mosaic model:




phospholipids always moving
proteins are studded on its…

Page 5

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pumps
enzymes
adhesion sites

Simple diffusion

Net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration across a partially permeable membrane.
continues until dynamic equilibrium
small uncharged molecules fit between phospholipids




Facilitated diffusion
Still molecules moving down their concentration gradient
using proteins to transport…

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Isotonic
has same concentration as cell
looses same amount as it gains




Hypertonic
higher solute concentration
loses more water than it gains




Hypotonic
has a lower solute concentration
gains more water than it loses




Active transport
pumping molecules along their concentration gradient
requires carrier protein, energy ATP
Endocytosis
into the…

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out of cell
vesicle fuses with membrane and discharges contents out of
cytoplasm(enzymes, mucus, hormones)




Enzymes

The body works by chemicals reacting together. Enzymes are proteins that speed up
reactions



Called metabolism

­ Anabolic reactions

· Build substrates

­ Catabolic reactions

· Breakdown substrates




Catalysts

A catalyst is an agent…

Page 8

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Proteins are GLOBULAR

They have a TERTIARY structure

The active site of an enzyme:

· Specific region on the enzyme

· That allows only one substrate to bind to it:

­ Complementary fit

How enzymes catalyze reactions:

1. The specific substrate with the complementary shape collides with the active site…

Page 9

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· Induced fit

­ Active site is not rigid

­ Once substrate collides with active site

­ Active site changes shape

­ Reduces the activation energy needed.




DNA

4 base pairs:

Adenine
Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine

Held together by hydrogen bonds

A ­ T

G ­ C

A + G have…

Page 10

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T + C have single rings (pyrimidines)



Genes act as the code for protein synthesis
· All of the genes in an individual make up its genome

· 2 strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) twisted to form a double helix

­ They rung in opposite directions, called antiparallel strands.

·…

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