Edexcel Additional Science C2 Revision Notes

With revision tips

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 09-06-12 19:45
Preview of Edexcel Additional Science C2 Revision Notes

First 231 words of the document:

Make sure you know the following state symbols:
Solid (s)
Liquid (l)
Gas (g)
Dissolved in water or aqueous solution (aq)
Capitals are not acceptable
Carbon chemistry (organic chemistry)
Carbon is a non metal element found in Group 4. It has the ability to form four bonds with other atoms.
Carbon is able to form chains of almost unlimited length
Carbon compounds are the basis of life. They are found in all living things as well as materials derived from
living things.
A hydrocarbon is a compound that only contains the elements hydrogen and carbon.
Alkanes are hydrocarbons with only single bonds. We call them saturated hydrocarbons because each
carbon atoms is bonded to the maximum number of other atoms.
Displayed Formula Molecular Formula
H C H methane, CH4
H C C H ethane, C2H6
H C C C H propane, C3H6
Alkenes are a different type of hydrocarbon. In alkenes, two of the carbons atoms are joined by a double
covalent bond.
We call them unsaturated hydrocarbons because not all the carbons are bonded to the maximum
number of atoms.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Here are the first two members of the alkene family:
Name Ethene Propene
Formula C2H4 C3H6
Structure of H H H H
Testing for alkanes and alkenes
The test for unsaturation is:
Add bromine water to the alkane/alkene and shake
Result for alkanes(saturated)stays as brown solution
Result for alkenes (unsaturated)colour disappears (decolourizes)
Making ethanol from ethane
Ethene is reacted with water at high temperatures and pressurein the presence of a catalyst to
produce ethanol.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Properties of polymers
The following properties of polymers make them really useful materials:
Strong and elastic
Don't corrode
Good electrical and thermal insulators
Low densities
Easily moulded
There are two types of polymer:
Thermoplastics Thermosets
Easily softened and remoulded Can be softened and moulded into shape the first
Polymer chains held together by weak time they are heated but can't be reshaped after
intermolecular forces which are overcome by that.
heating.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Vegetable oils are made of compounds called triglycerides. Triglyceride molecules are made from three
fatty acid molecules attached to a smaller molecule called glycerol.
Monounsaturated fats Each fatty acid contains one double bond
Polyunsaturate fats Each fatty acid contains more than one double bond
Saturated fats no double bonds in the fatty acids, these only have single bonds between their carbon
atoms. This means that their molecules line up close together with strong forces of attraction. They are
solids at room temperature or viscous liquids.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Calculating reacting masses of reactants and products
Eg.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Atomic number or proton number
This is the number of protons in the atoms of the element. The number of protons is the same for all atoms
of an element. The number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in a neutral atom.
The atomic number is the bottom number for each element.
Mass number or nucleon number
The number of protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom is the mass number.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

The further the electron is from the nucleus, the more easily it
is lost.
Reactivity of group 7 The halogens
All group 7 elements have seven electrons in their outer shell. All these elements want to gain an electron in
order to have a full outer shell. They become less reactive as we go down the group because the outer
electron shell that gains an electron during reactions is further away from positive attraction the nucleus.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Good conductors of heat and electricity
Malleable (can be hammered into shape)
Shiny when polished
High meliting and boiling points
Sonorous (will ring when struck)
Ductile (can be drawn into wires)
Many metals are mixed with other subtances (such as another metal, sillicon or carbon) to improve their
Alloys can:
Have a lower boiling point
Be more resistant to corrosion
Have increased chemical resistance
Have increased strength and hardness
For example, carbon is added to iron to make steel which is far…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

These have many atoms joined to each other by covalent bonds.
Two examples are diamond and graphite.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Chemical based therapy
This is medication taken to relieve symptoms of an illness or ailment. For example, chemotherapy is used to
destroy cancer cells and antibiotics are used to treat baterial infections.
Homeopathic medicines are weak, diluted doses of compounds or drugs that in strong doses would cause
symptoms of the illness in a healthy person. Homeopathic medicine is believed to kick start the body's
natural healing process.
Homeopathy goes against established scientific theory.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Science resources:

See all Science resources »See all resources »