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Equations
Make sure you know the following state symbols:
Solid (s)
Liquid (l)
Gas (g)
Dissolved in water or aqueous solution (aq)

Capitals are not acceptable

Carbon chemistry (organic chemistry)
Carbon is a non metal element found in Group 4. It has the ability to form four bonds with other…

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Here are the first two members of the alkene family:

Name Ethene Propene

Formula C2H4 C3H6

Structure of H H H H
molecule
C=C C=C C H

H H H H H

Testing for alkanes and alkenes

The test for unsaturation is:

Add bromine water to the alkane/alkene and shake…

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Properties of polymers
The following properties of polymers make them really useful materials:

Strong and elastic
Don't corrode
Good electrical and thermal insulators
Low densities
Colourful
Easily moulded

There are two types of polymer:

Thermoplastics Thermosets
Easily softened and remoulded Can be softened and moulded into shape the first
Polymer…

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Vegetable oils are made of compounds called triglycerides. Triglyceride molecules are made from three
fatty acid molecules attached to a smaller molecule called glycerol.

Monounsaturated fats Each fatty acid contains one double bond

Polyunsaturate fats Each fatty acid contains more than one double bond

Saturated fats no double bonds in…

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Calculating reacting masses of reactants and products
Eg. How much calcimum oxide can be made from 50kg of calcium carbonate? (Relative atomic mass:
Ca=40 O=16 C=12)

Step 1 Write down the equation CaCO3 CaO+CO2
Step 2 Work out the relative formula mass of each

40+12+(3x16) (40+16)+(12+(2x16))

100 56 + 44…

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Atomic number or proton number
This is the number of protons in the atoms of the element. The number of protons is the same for all atoms
of an element. The number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in a neutral atom.

The atomic number is the…

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negative electrons shield it from the nucleus. The further the electron is from the nucleus, the more easily it
is lost.

Reactivity of group 7 The halogens
All group 7 elements have seven electrons in their outer shell. All these elements want to gain an electron in
order to have…

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Good conductors of heat and electricity
Dense
Malleable (can be hammered into shape)
Shiny when polished
High meliting and boiling points
Sonorous (will ring when struck)
Ductile (can be drawn into wires)

Alloys
Many metals are mixed with other subtances (such as another metal, sillicon or carbon) to improve their…

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These have many atoms joined to each other by covalent bonds.

Two examples are diamond and graphite. Both are forms (allotropes) or carbon
Diamond Graphite
Giant, rigid, covalent (lattice) structure Giant, covalent, (lattice) structure
Each carbon is bonded to four other carbon Each carbon is bonded to three other carbon…

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Chemical based therapy
This is medication taken to relieve symptoms of an illness or ailment. For example, chemotherapy is used to
destroy cancer cells and antibiotics are used to treat baterial infections.

Homeopathic medicines are weak, diluted doses of compounds or drugs that in strong doses would cause
symptoms of…

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