Eating Behaviour notes

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EATING BEHAVIOUR
DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PREFERANCES:
Babies are born with taste receptors- sweet, sour, salt and bitter so they can
distinguish differences in food from an early age.
BENTON: children like sweet food as it can be affective in reducing distress-
leads to to thinking there is an INNATE preference for food.
NEOPHOBIA= phobia of food. Was used as a survival method in the past. Is
found in babies but decreases with age.
Experience and familiarity increases food preference.
BIRCH+MARLIN: exposures was necessary for the child to change from
neophobia to a preference as the child learn the food was safe.
FACTORS INFLUENCEING EATING BEHAVIOUR: CULTURE
Children in uk prefer chicken and cips, pizza ect. Children in india prefer spicy
food. Children in japan prefer fish due to the difference in their culture EG.
Vegetarian or meat. Religious beliefs in a culture also affect food preference.
LESHEM: compared Bedouin Arab women living in the desert to Bedouin
women living in an urban setting. He compared both groups to jewish women
libing in a urban environment.
FOUND: diet of the 2 bedouin arab women were V.SIMILAR (higher salt intake) but
V.DIFFERENT from Jewish women.
Evidence is LIMITED AS SAMPLES ARE SMALL and follow up studies needed to
assess long term affects. We were also unaware of how long the women had been
living in the environment.
SHOWS: cultural influences on diet are large, even when living in a different area.
BIRCH: highlighted 3 main concepts:
EXPOSURE TO FOOD= BIRCH AND MALIN: introduced 2 yeal olds to new
foods over a 6 week period. One food was shown 20times, one 10, one 5 and
one remained unknown.
FOUND: a direct relationship // exposure and food preference- found that 8-10
exposures needed before changes were seen.
SHOWS: we prefer foods that we are familiar with.
LACKS INTERNAL VALIDITY- we do not know wheather foods are truly new to
the child= EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES. Need to look at long term effects.
NICKLAUS
Used data collected between 1982-1999 on the food preferances of children
aged 2-3 at nurseries.
Children allowed a free choice of a variety of foods and the preferances were
recordered.
In 2002- children and their families were contacted and invited ti take part in a
follow up study. They were given a questionnaire on their curren food
preference and parents were interviewed.
There were between 69 and 99 younger participants in each of the 4
categories- 4-7, 8-12, 13-16, 17,22yrs.

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FOUND: correlations//food preferances at age 2-3 and preferances at age 4-7
ware SIGNIFICANT. Correlations at other ages were not. Preferances for
cheese and to a lesser extent, vegetables remained stable between ages 2-3
to early adulthood. Was some increase in preference for veggies with
increasing age. DECREASES in preference for mat in FEMALES as they got
older but remained stable in males. Inflences in early adulthood influenced by
exposure.
May be ethical concerns over killing and eating animals, especially in females.…read more

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People who become obese were eating for emotional reasons whereas thin
people ate because they are hungry. This was known as the EMOTIONALITY
THEORY OF OBESITY (SCHACHTER).
It is generally recognised that most people eat in response to their mood,
regardless of their weight.
ODGEN: people eat more when they are in a negative mood as a way of
improving their mood or they eat more when they are in a positive mood due
to celebration.…read more

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ODGEN: provides reasons why:
1. MEDIA INFLUENCE: images in medoa have become slimmer over time,
increasing body dissatisfaction.
2. FAMILY: no. of studies show relationship//mother and daughter body
dissatisfaction and weight concern.
3. ETHNICITY: more body dissatisfaction in WHITE WOMEN.
4. SOCIAL CLASS: eating disorders found in more HIGHER CLASS social
groups- suggesting they are more sensitve to body dissfatifaction.
Recent research has found that this is becoming more equal across
social groups.
5.…read more

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ETHICAL ISSUES: pps received credit for taking part. Pps fully debriefed
after deception.
BOUNDRY MODEL= HERMAN AND POLIVY: explains why restrained eaters eat
more. They have a cognitive and physiological boundary controlling their
eating and the preloads take them past this and they end up eating more as
they take on the `what the hell' effect.
EVALUATION:
Boundary model= good example of combining physiological and psychological
factors to explain fooding behaviour.…read more

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It has been suggested that each person has a set body weight. The body
has a sense of what is acceptable and regulates eating around this.
FAT STORES- THE LIPOSTATIC HYPOTHESIS and our GLUCOSE LEVELS- THE
GLUCOSTATIC HYPOTHESIS- suggest that when either our fat stores are
low or our glucose levels are low, we feel hungry, which makes us eat.
Glucose levels do not vary enough to be an effective signal of hunger.…read more

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CUMMINGS ET AL:
o Investigated the changes in blood GHRELIN levels over time // meals.
o 6 particiapants were allowed to eat lunch, then ghrelin levels were
monitored from blood samples taken every 5 mins form a
tube/catheter in the vein until the pps requested their dinner.
o They assessed their degree of hunger every 30 mins.
o They found that ghrelin levels fell immediately after eating lunch,
reaching their lowest level at about 70mins.…read more

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Today- VEGETARIANS have become popular based on health, ethical, religious
and moral grounds, but we are still designed to eat meat.
Skills to hunt would lead to survival.
SEX FOR MEAT HYPOTHSIS: skilled hunters would gain greater power in the
group and receive more sexual opportunities to spread genes.
In modern tribes some women can divorce husbands who are not successful
in providng food (BUSS).
This led to differences in gender.
We cannot scientifically test evolutionary hypothesis in a lab. They use fossil
evidence.…read more

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EATING DISORDERS
ANOREXIA NERVOSE (AN)
CLINCAL CHARACTERISTICS
The DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL FOR MENTAL DISORDERS
(DSM-IV) identified 3 categories of eating disorders: AN, BN and eating
disorders- specified as ENDOS. This is made up of eating disorders that do
not classify as AN or BN.
AN is made into either AN RESTRICTING or AN BINGE EATING/PURGING
TYPE.
Main 4 symptoms=
1. body weight below 85% of normal for body weight and height.
2.…read more

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