Developmental studies

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Developmental studies
Bandura
Aim To investigate the Social Learning Theory and to see if learning that took place in one situation would be generalised
to other situations.
Research predictions
Observing an aggressive model will lead a participant to reproduce aggressive acts similar to their models,
whereas this will not be true of participants who observed non-aggressive models or no models.
Observing an aggressive model will lead a participant to behave in a generally more aggressive manner,
whereas those who observed a non-aggressive model would be inhibited from behaving aggressively.
Participants will imitate the behaviour of a same-sex model to a greater degree than a model of the opposite
sex.
Boys will be more likely than girls to imitate aggressive behaviour because it is a highly masculine activity.
Participants Children from a university nursery school (Stanford in California), 36 girls and 36 boys aged between 3 to 5
years. There were two adult `models', a male and a female, plus a female experimenter.
Method/Procedure LABORATORY EXPERIMENT
There were two experimental groups and one control group.
Experimental group 1: observed an aggressive model
Experimental group 2: observed a non-aggressive model
Control group: observed no models
Each experimental groups was subdivided into four groups:
Boys watching same-sex model
Boys watching opposite sex model
Girls watching same-sex model
Girls watching opposite sex model
8 experimental groups with 6 children
1 control group with 24 children
The children were matched on the basis of their pre-existing levels of aggression, which was rated on five-point scales
by the experimenter and nursery school teacher before the experiment began.
Independent variables (3):
The sex of the model
The sex of the participants
The behaviour of the model (aggressive or non-aggressive)
Dependent variables:
Behaviour of the children over three stages of the experiment
Experiment structure
Children exposed to adult The child was subjected to 'mild Observation of delayed imitation lasted 20
model, individually. In the aggression arousal'. The child minutes while child was in room containing

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Developmental studies
aggressive condition the model was taken to a room with aggressive and non-aggressive toys and a Bobo
acted out a series of relatively attractive toys. As doll. Observers watched through a one way
pre-planned aggressive acts soon as the child started to play mirror and three measures of imitation were
towards the Bobo doll. In the with the toys the experimenter obtained:
non-aggressive condition the told the child that these were 1. Imitative physical aggression
model played quietly. the experimenter's very best 2.…read more

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Developmental studies
Samuel and Bryant
Aim The aim of Samuel and Bryant's study was to challenge Piaget's findings by altering the method used by Piaget.
Participants 252 boys and girls from a variety of schools and pre-schools in Devon. They were divided into four groups
by age and each group had 63 children. The mean age of each group was: 5years and 3months, 6years and 3months,
7years and 3months and 8years and 3months.…read more

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Developmental studies
asked to compare the cylinder and the sausage. The children in condition 3 (fixed-array) also made this comparison
without seeing the first display or the transformation.
Number: children in condition 1 and 2 were shown two rows of counters of equal length arranged side by side in one to
one correspondence. The rows contained six counters. Then one row was spread out or bunched up. The condition 3
children saw only the post-transformation displays.…read more

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Developmental studies
Fantasy about plumber giving him `a bigger widdler and a Wanting to be like his father (evidence for possible
bigger behind' resolution of Oedipus complex)
Conclusion Until the analysis of Little Hans, Freud could only deduce the existence of infant sexuality and the oedipal
complex from the memories of adult patience.…read more

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Developmental studies
A main assumption of the developmental approach is that cognitive, emotional and behavioural
development is an on-going process and that such changes result from an interaction of nature or
nurture.…read more

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