Development and Globalisation Acronyms

A list and explanation, with examples, of all the acronyms within the A2 AQA Geography Development and Globalisation module

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Classification of Countries
LDC = Less Developed Country
e.g Sierra Leone, Haiti, Myanmar
33 out of the 50 LDC's are subSaharan
highest HDI ranking of LDC is Gabon at 119th and then South Africa at 121st (out of 197)
What makes an LDC?
1. Income below $750 per capita per year
2. Weak human resources
Nutrition and calorie uptake
3. Economic vulnerability
Instability of exports
Instability of agricultural production
MDC = More Developed Country
e.g USA, UK, Norway
NIC = Newly Industrialised Country (more than last 40 years)
e.g South Korea, Hong Kong
RIC = Recently Industrialised Country (last 40 years)
e.g Brazil, Russia
OCR = OilRich Countries
e.g Qatar, Saudi Arabia
LLDC = LandLocked Less Developed Country
e.g Central African Republic, Bhutan, Moldova, Bolivia
SIDS = Small Island Developing States
e.g Vanuata, Dominican Republic, Seychelles
HIPC = Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
e.g Rwanda, Ghana, Afghanistan
29 out of the 40 HIPC's in the world are subSaharan
Development Indicators
HDI = Human Development Index
= Composite indicator first used by the UN in 1990 to replace the sole use of GDP
Takes into account:
GNI PPP per capita
Years of schooling
Life expectancy at birth
End figure is between 0 and 1, with proximity to 1 indicating development of a country
e.g 1st = Norway 0.943, 28th = UK 0.863, 84th = Brazil 0.718, 101st = China 0.687, 134th =
India 0.547, 187th = DR Congo 0.286 it is worth checking out an updated list as this years
results were released by the UN last week
HPI = Happy Planet Index
Introduced by the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in 2006
Doesn't indicate which is the happiest country in the world but the relative ecological
efficiency with which human wellbeing is delivered around the world

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First index to combine environmental efficiency with human wellbeing
However it is based mainly on opinions not facts and so is subjective
e.…read more

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Grouping consists of USA, Canada and Mexico
NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Founded in 1949, with 28 members, and is classed as an intergovernmental military
Accounts for 70% of the world's defence spending
OPEC = Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Founded in 1961 and consists of 12 countries all of which are net exporters of oil.…read more

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Eight development goals that 23 international organisations and all 193 UN members
agreed to aim to achieve by 2015
TNC = Transnational Corporations MNC = Multinational Corporations
Corporation that has production establishments or delivers services in at least two
countries. Some TNCs have grown so large that they have budgets that exceed those of
many countries in which they operate
FDI = Foreign Direct Investment
CPC = Communist Party of China
SEZ = Special Economic Zone
e.…read more

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UNESCO = United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
ERDF = European Regional Development Fund
Aims to strengthen economic and social cohesion in the EU by correcting imbalances
between its regions
ISO = International Organisation for Standardization
Ensures the standardization of containerization across the globe
NGO = NonGovernmental Organisation…read more


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