Detailed notes on development - types, measuring, case study, development gap

Development: Improvement in a number of different characteristics of a population

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Development and Globalisation
Development: Improvement in a number of different characteristics of a population
Economic development
Increase in a country's level of wealth
Decrease in those employed in agriculture and an increase in manufacturing and
service employment
Greater access of and use of natural resources
More energy per head of the population
Environment is exploited
Demographic development
Increase in life expectancy
Fall in death rate including infant mortality
Falling of birth rates
Social development
Range of factors affecting the quality of life of the population
Improved levels of education, literacy and medical facilities ­ decrease in the
number of people per doctor
Political development
Freedom ­ people can have a greater say in who forms the government
Cultural development
Greater equality for women
Better race relations in multicultural societies
Measuring Development
Usually given in US Dollars so that comparisons could be made
GDP (Gross Domestic Product): total value of all finished goods and services produced
by a country in a year, usually expressed in amount per head of population
GNP (Gross National Product): Total value of all finished goods and services produced
by a country in a year, plus all net income earned by that country and its population from
overseas sources. Usually expressed in amount per head of population.
Problems
Differences in wealth between regions or various groups
Wealth might be concentrated in the hands of a few
Fails to take into account the local cost of living and purchasing powers of people's
incomes
Early classification of development
First World:
Developed world
Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand
Second World:
Statecontrolled communist countries
Former USSR and some Eastern Europe
Third World:
Developing world
All countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America

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Current Day Classification
Developed countries:
most highly developed countries, whose populations enjoy high living standards
Developing countries: countries at a lower stage of development
Least developed countries (LDCs):
Countries with low living standards
High infant mortality
Low levels of education
Typically subSaharan African countries
Newly industrialising countries (NICs):
Countries that have begun to develop through industrialisation in the last 40 years
Some can be classed as Developed countries,
E.g.…read more

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Other Measures of development
Human development index (HDI)
Proposed by the UN
Life expectancy at birth
Adult literacy and enrolment in education at primary, secondary and tertiary levels
Real GDP per capita
Criticisms
Places some developing countries in the same band as Europe due to promoting
human development even with low incomes
Case Study: SubSaharan Africa
Many of these countries would occupy the lowest places on any list of development
Biggest challenges are poverty, hunger, disease and high birth rates
Vulnerable too many types of…read more

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