Cross Cultural Variation in Attachment AS PSYCHOLOGY

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Cross
C ul
tur
al
Var
iat
ion
in
Att
achment
CrossCult
ural
Var
iat
i on
Study
Van
Ij
zendoor
n and
Kr
o onenber
g (
1988)
AIMS:
To investigate variations in attachment styles between
different cultures, through a meta-analysis of research that had
studied attachments in other cultures. (using other studies results)
They compared only the findings of studies that had used the
Strange Situation in order to draw conclusions about the external validity of this as a
measure of attachment to other populations (population validity) and other settings
(ecological validity).
PROCEDURES:
They used the results of 32 studies that had used the strange situation to measure
attachment.
Research from 8 different countries was used including Western cultures (e.g. US, Great
Britain, Germany) and non-Western cultures (e.g. Japan, China, Israel).
FINDINGS:
Secure attachment was the most common type of attachment in all 8 nations.
However, significant differences were found in the distribution of insecure
attachments.
Western cultures = Avoidant was the dominant insecure attachment
Non-Western cultures = Resistant was the dominant insecure attachment
There was greater variation within cultures than between cultures.
CONCLUSIONS:
The overall consistency in attachment types leads to the conclusion that there
may be universal characteristics that underpin infant and caregiver interactions
However, the significant variations show that universality is limited.
The significant differences question the validity of the Strange Situation.
The variations in both between and within cultures may show that child-rearing practices
vary both between and within cultures.

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Expl
anat
ions
of
Att
achment
Lear
ning
Theor
y
Refers to behaviourist attempts to explain all behaviour in terms of conditioning
According to this theory accounts of attachment formation, through classical
conditioning babies learn to associate their care givers with food, which an
unconditioned or primary reinforcer.…read more

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Bowl
by'
s Theor
y of
At
tachment
John Bowlby was a child psychoanalyst interested in the relationship between child
and their caregiver
He was influenced by the evolutionary theory & believed that attachment was an
innate response, which evolved and served to promote survival in several ways such
as:
Attachment is innate and adaptive:
Children have an innate drive to become attached to a caregiver in order to
ensure their survival and ultimately reproduction (adaptive)
Adults respond to innate social releases:
Adults have a…read more

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Which is the mother-infant attachment cannot be broken in the first year of life
without the child's emotional and intellectual development being seriously and
permanently harmed
MD Affectionless Psychopathy Harm Irreversible
SUPPORT
Goldfarb (1943)
(Group 1) Studied 15 children raised in institutions from about six
months until three and a half years of age; they lived in almost
total social isolation during their first year
They were matched with (Group 2) with 15 children who'd gone
straight from their natural mothers to foster homes
At…read more

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John was placed in a residential nursery for 9 days while his mother was in
hospital. He was cared for by staffs that attended to his physical needs but
were too busy to give him much attention.…read more

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Detachment- begins to engage with other people again but might be wary and
might reject caregiver when they return and show signs of anger
Separation anxiety long term effects of separation
Extreme clinginess- child may cling onto parent in a situation where
they are leaving them so they don't have to be separated again e.g.…read more

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· Concluded: Early privation has a negative effect on the ability to form
relationships even when given good subsequent emotional care. This
supports Bowlby's view that failure to form attachments during the
sensitive period of development has an irreversible effect on
emotional development
· Limitations: Cannot be sure that children did not form attachments
before age of 4 months.…read more

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More likely to be bullied (Hodges & Tizzard)
· Depression- Loss of appetite; isolation; sleeplessness; impaired social &
intellectual development
· Deprivation Dwarfism- physical underdevelopment due to emotional
deprivation
Reactive attachment disorder:
· A rare, but serious condition which children are permanently damaged by their
early experiences, caused by privation.…read more

Comments

Jack

Very helpful and detailed, well done! :)

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