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Page 1

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Cross
C ul
tur
al
Var
iat
ion
in
Att
achment



CrossCult
ural
Var
iat
i on
Study

Van
Ij
zendoor
n and
Kr
o onenber
g (
1988)



AIMS:
To investigate variations in attachment styles between
different cultures, through a meta-analysis of research that had
studied attachments in other…

Page 2

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Expl
anat
ions
of
Att
achment


Lear
ning
Theor
y

Refers to behaviourist attempts to explain all behaviour in terms of conditioning
According to this theory accounts of attachment formation, through classical
conditioning babies learn to associate their care givers with food, which an
unconditioned or primary reinforcer.
Caregiver only…

Page 3

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Bowl
by'
s Theor
y of
At
tachment

John Bowlby was a child psychoanalyst interested in the relationship between child
and their caregiver
He was influenced by the evolutionary theory & believed that attachment was an
innate response, which evolved and served to promote survival in several ways such
as:…

Page 4

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The mother isn't special in the way Bowlby claimed; babies and young children
display a whole range of attachment behaviours towards various attachment
figures other than their mothers


Multiple attachments are the norm; although Bowlby didn't deny that children
form multiple attachments, Schaffer and Emerson's (1964) study showed that
these…

Page 5

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Which is the mother-infant attachment cannot be broken in the first year of life
without the child's emotional and intellectual development being seriously and
permanently harmed
MD Affectionless Psychopathy Harm Irreversible

SUPPORT
Goldfarb (1943)
(Group 1) Studied 15 children raised in institutions from about six
months until three and a…

Page 6

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However, MDH interpretation fails to do the following things:

Recognise some of the methodological weaknesses of these studies; possible
in Goldfarb that Group 2 was brighter, easy going, sociable and healthy from
early age, this is why they were fostered rather than sent to an institution.


Recognise that the institutions…

Page 7

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· John was placed in a residential nursery for 9 days while his mother was in
hospital. He was cared for by staffs that attended to his physical needs but
were too busy to give him much attention.
· Found that John sought comfort in a teddy bear, refused food…

Page 8

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Detachment- begins to engage with other people again but might be wary and
might reject caregiver when they return and show signs of anger

Separation anxiety long term effects of separation
Extreme clinginess- child may cling onto parent in a situation where
they are leaving them so they don't have…

Page 9

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attachments with their adoptive parents, but both adopted and
non-adopted children had problems with peer relations

· Concluded: Early privation has a negative effect on the ability to form
relationships even when given good subsequent emotional care. This
supports Bowlby's view that failure to form attachments during the
sensitive period…

Page 10

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· More likely to be bullied (Hodges & Tizzard)
· Depression- Loss of appetite; isolation; sleeplessness; impaired social &
intellectual development
· Deprivation Dwarfism- physical underdevelopment due to emotional
deprivation
Reactive attachment disorder:
· A rare, but serious condition which children are permanently damaged by their
early experiences, caused by…

Comments

Jack

Very helpful and detailed, well done! :)

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