Cultural variations in attachment
Tronick et al. (1992)
- They studied an African tribe who live in extended family groups.
- The infants are looked after and even breastfed different women but usually slept with their own mother at night.
- Despite such differences in childbearing practices, at six months, the infants still showed one primary attachment figure.
- Studied infants raised on Israeli kibbutzim who spent most of their time being cared for in a communal children's home by nurses.
- Attachment was tested in the Strange Situation with either the nurse or the mother.
- Infants appeared to be equally attached to both caregivers except in terms of reuinion behaviour - they showed greater attachment towards their mothers.
- This shows that the mothers were still the primary attachment figure despite the shared care.
Grossman and Grossman (1991)
- Found that children infants tended to be more insecurely attached than securely attached - may be due to childbearing practices.
- German culture involves keeping interpersonal distance between infants and caregivers to discourage proximity seeking behaviours and thus appear to be more insecurely attached.
- Studied 60 middle-class Japanese infants using the Strange Situation.
- Found similar rates of secure attachment to those found by Ainsworth et al. in the US sample.
- However, Japanese infants showed no signs of insecure avoidant but high rates of insecure resistant attachment (32%).
- Response of Japanese infants was so extreme that for 90% of the infants, the study was stopped.
- Japanese infants are rarely separated from their mothers. It would explain…