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FUNCTIONALISM
· DURKHEIM ­ CRIME IS POSITIVE, INEVITABLE, BUT TOO MUCH IS DYSFUNCTIONAL
· MERTON ­ STRAIN THEORY (AMERICAN DREAM)
· A COHEN ­ SUBCULTURAL STRAIN THEORY
· CLOWARD & OHLIN ­ DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUBCULTURES
· EMPEY ­ PEOPLE BELONG TO MORE THAN ONE SUBCULTURE
· MILLER ­ CRIME COMES FROM WORKING CLASS TRAITS, NOT ANOMIE
· MARXISM ­ CRIMINOGENIC CAPITALISM
· FEMINISM ­ IGNORES GENDER DIFFERENCES IN CRIME…read more

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INTERACTIONISM
· BECKER ­ AGENCIES OF SOCIAL CONTROL LABEL BEHAVIOUR AS DEVIANT ­ VARIES OVER PLACE
AND TIME
· ETHNOMETHODOLOGISTS ­ DEVIANCE IS IN THE EYE OF THE BEHOLDER
· SELECTIVE LABELLING ­ DEPENDS ON WHO COMMITS AND WHO WITNESSES
· CONSEQUENCES OF LABELLING & MEDIA CREATE MORAL PANICS
· GOFFMAN ­ HOSPITALISATION OF THE MENTALLY ILL
· HIPPIES IN NOTTING HILL ­ SAW THEMSELVES AS OUTSIDERS
· FULLER ­ LABELLING THEORY IS TOO DETERMINISTIC ­ YEAR 11 BLACK GIRLS
· TOO READILY DISMISS OFFICIAL STATISTICS OF CRIME
· MARXISM ­ SELECTIVE LAW ENFORCEMENT PROTECTS THE INTERESTS OF THE RULING CLASS
· LEFT REALISM ­ NEGLECT THE VICTIM…read more

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MARXISM
· CRIMINOGENIC CAPITALISM
· LAWS CREATED TO BENEFIT THE RULING CLASS
· SELECTIVE LAW ENFORCEMENT ­ CREATES THE BELIEF CRIME IS A WORKING CLASS PROBLEM
· NEO-MARXISM ­ MARXISTS ARE DETERMINISTIC AND IGNORE INDIVIDUAL MEANINGS
WIDER STRUCTURAL/IMMEDIATE/ACT ITSELF/IMMEDIATE REACTIONS/WIDER REACTIONS/
EFFECTS OF LABELLING
· LEFT REALISM
· FEMINISM
· FUNCTIONALISM…read more

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REALISM
· LEFT REALISM ­ MARGINALISATION, RELATIVE DEPRIVATION, SUBCULTURES
· RIGHT REALISM ­ BIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES, SOCIALISATION, RATIONAL CHOICE,
OPPORTUNITY, MORAL DECLINE
· FLOOD-PAGE ­ SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES IS NOT A CAUSE OF CRIME ­ TOO DETERMINISTIC
· TOO READILY ACCEPT OFFICIAL STATISTICS ­ FAIL TO EXPLAIN WHITE COLLAR CRIME
· INTERACTIONISM & MARXISM ­ FAIL TO SEE HOW CRIME IS SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED
· FEMINISTS ­ IGNORES HOW PATRIARCHY SHAPES GENDER PATTERNS OF CRIME
· FUNCTIONALISTS ­ CRIME IS A RESPONSE TO ANOMIE NOT MARGINALISATION ETC.…read more

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MEDIA
· MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS ­ NEWS COVERAGE, DISTORTIONS (OVER REPRESENT/EXAGGERATE), NEWS VALUES,
FICTIONAL REPRESENTATIONS
· MEDIA AS A CAUSE OF CRIME ­ IMITATION, DESENSITISATION, AROUSAL AND TEACHING.
BELSON ­ THOSE WHO WITNESSED TV VIOLENCE COMMITTED 49% MORE VIOLENT ACTS
BANDURA ­ THE GROUP WHO SAW THE AGGRESSION DISPLAYED MORE VIOLENCE
BUT THERE IS NO CONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE
LEFT REALISTS ­ MEDIA INCREASE THE SENSE OF RELATIVE DEPRIVATION
MEDIA CAUSE A FEAR OF CRIME BY EXAGGERATING THE RISK OF VICTIMISATION
· DEVIANCY AMPLIFICATION AND MORAL PANICS ­ IDENTIFY A GROUP AS DEVIANT, PRESENT THEM NEGATIVELY,
CONDEMN THE GROUP, FORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL INCREASES, DEVIANCE BECOMES AMPLIFIED ­ E.G. MODS AND
ROCKERS.
· REASONS FOR MORAL PANICS ­ SOCIAL CHANGE, BOUNDARY CRISIS, ANOMIE, DRAW ATTENTION AWAY FROM
CAPITALISM
· POSTMODERNISTS ­ MORAL PANICS ARE NOW ROUTINE AND HAVE LESS IMPACT, SOME DEVIANT GROUPS USE MORAL
PANICS TO THEIR ADVANTAGE ­ E.G. ENVIRONMENTALISTS
· GLOBAL CYBER CRIME ­ CREATES MORAL PANICS ­ INTERNET CREATED NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR CRIME E.G.
TRESPASS, PORNOGRAPHY, THEFT, VIOLENCE (PSYCHOLOGICAL, E.G. STALKING). DIFFICULT TO POLICE. INVASIVE
SOCIETY (CCTV)…read more

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