Coordination and Response notes

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Receptors: a receptor is a cell that can sense something in its environment. There are different
receptors for the different types of information in the environment (light, sound touch,
temperature & chemicals) The receptors change the energy in these stimuli into electrical
energy in nerve cells.
A group of receptor cells are often part of a sense organ.

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In our eye, we have receptors on the retina called rods and cones. When the light energy lands on
the rods and cones, it generates tiny electrical signals in them, which pass along to the optic
nerve, to the brain.
Diagram of the eye:
The cornea and the lens are what
help the light focus on the retina.
The cornea does most of the
focusing and the lens makes the
final adjustments.
1.…read more

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When looking at a far away object, our lens becomes thinner. This is because our brains send a
nerve impulse to our ciliary muscles to relax. Our suspensory ligament is now tight and our lens
is thin, refracting little light
What makes our nervous system: receptors, brain, spinal chord, and nerves
The central nervous system- made up of the brain and spinal chord
The spinal chord is found within the vertebrae, as it needs to be protected.…read more

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The reflex arc is the pathway from the
receptor to the muscle. It only takes a second
for the signal to travel the whole way, so
response is quick.
This response is called a reflex action, as it is
quick ad automatic.…read more

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Causes the liver to break down some glycogen, releasing more glucose in the blood
Both of them result in an increase in metabolic rate
Causes arterioles in the digestive system to constrict, dilating our muscles giving us
`tummy buttons'
May cause bronchioles to widen, allowing more air to move in and out.…read more

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If light shines from a certain direction onto the shoot, the Auxin tends to accumulate on the
shady side, which causes the cells on the shady side of the shoot to grow longer than the ones on
the sunny side. The shoot then begins to bend and bends TOWARDS the light. (Positive
Effect on roots
Auxin accumulates on the underside of the growing root. However, in roots, Auxin stops cell
growth.…read more


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