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CONSERVATISM:
Defined by a desire to conserve.

Core Values:

1. Human Nature = A pessimistic attitude in Human nature.

Humankind is born with original sin and must therefore remain severely flawed in
character. Human can never achieve perfection.
Individuals are not driven by reason but by basic appetites like `the…

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E.g.: In a modern context, this is reflected in the conservative suspicion of the referendum as a
governing mechanism.

2. Order and Authority and Hierarchy

Conservatives affirm that humankind's most basic need is for order and security.
Hobbs, `On the one hand, individuals have a desire to be free and…

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Traditional institutions such as the monarchy, established church and political
constitutions.
Traditional values such as preservation of marriage and the importance of the
nuclear family, religion and established morality.
E.g. British Conservatives argue that the institution of monarchy should be
preserved because it embodies historical wisdom and experience.



4. Resistance…

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Pragmatism implies a flexible and practical approach to politics: an understanding of
what is best for people, what is acceptable to them and what will preserve a stable
society.
Conservatives prefer moderate change rather than revolution. To do nothing is better
sometimes than to do something which is can harm…

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Power ought to rest with dominant elites who are believed to possess the skills,
knowledge and mindsets to manage systems which might otherwise collapse into
chaos.
Those at the upper levels of the hierarchy are expected to take responsibility for the
welfare of the lower orders, a principle known as…

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The defence of property has included opposition to the introduction of
Common ownership (nationalisation),
Resistance to high property taxes and
Heavy stress on law and order since high crime levels tend to mostly affect
private property.




The Types of Conservatism
1. One nation Toryism
Founder: Benjamin Disraeli

DISRAELI was a…

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Social unifiers criticised the new `Individualist and free-market' policies of Thatcher era.
These new ideas within conservatism were threatening to divide Britain into two
nations ­ the haves and have-nots.




2. The National Authoritarian

Ultra conservatives are radical nationalists placing the national interest above all.

They oppose the activities of…

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3. The New Right

Thatcher- 'We need a far greater degree of personal responsibility and decision, far more
independence from the government and a comparative reduction in the role of the state'.

The term was imported from USA into UK to describe the wing of the Conservative Party that
gathered…

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In 1980, neo classical economics was renamed as `monetarism'. It was Margret Thatcher
who was the first to dare to experiment with it when she was faces with a severely
depressed British economy. She refused to intervene and the economy recovered
(temporarily).




C. Right-wing Nationalism
The new right was faced…

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this laissez-faire economic approach it is authoritarian in all non-economic spheres of life,
which may give it a paradoxical appearance.




Key Thinkers And Influences Of New Right

a) Friedman: Leading figure for New Right.

i) He argued that the rise of socialist thinking has resulted in excessive interference by the…

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