AS OCR Computing Definitions

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  • Created by: Josh
  • Created on: 21-04-13 18:42
Hardware
Physical part of the computer you interact with.
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Software
Instructions which run on the CPU to perform tasks.
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Input Devices
Allow data to flow from the user to the computing system for processing.
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Output Devices
Allow data to flow from the computing system to the user after being processed.
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Storage Devices
Allow software and user data to stored on a non-volatile device such as a hard drive.
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System Software
Allows access to and control over the hardware. Will also manage software and all low level functions of the computer.
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Application Software
Software which allows a user to carry out a specific task.
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CAD/ CAM
The process of designing a product on a computer, testing it using physics simulations then manufacturing many copies based on one design.
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Databases
A structured organisation of data. Data is organised into tables, fields and records.
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Knowledge Based Systems
Contain a large database of facts which are used by an inference engine to arrive at a solution. Allows computer to make intelligent decisions based on input.
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Multitasking
Process of swapping applications in and of the CPU, giving the illusion that they are running in parallel.
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Batch Processing
Performs similar tasks or jobs serially without the need for user intervention.
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Real Time Systems
Must respond immediately to input otherwise there could be negative consequences. Tasks must always have a bounded time to complete, or the system is not 'real time'.
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Utility Software
Systems program designed to perform commonplace tasks like transferring data from one storage device to another or sorting data.
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System
Combination of software amd hardware which meets the needs of a given set of users/ purposes.
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Problem Definition
Process of defining what problem exist currently in system, or what a new system could solve.
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Stakeholder
Someone interested in the business (system). Passive, not involved in production, or Active, will have a part to play in the system being built.
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Feasibility Study
Process of seeing if the project can be done or not and whether the project is desirable by the developing company.
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Design
Process of taking the requirements of a new system and deciding on what the system will look like, how it will store data and how it will process it.
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Implementation
Process of installing the new system at the client's site. This is a managed installation and will normally include both hardware and software components.
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Maintenance
Process of fixing bugs and adding new features over time to ensure the smooth running of a computer based system.
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Character Encoding
How characters are represented using binary. The minimum number of bits should be used for any given encoding scheme.
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OCR
Optical Character Recognition - takes text found in a digital image and converts it into ASCII which can be read by the text editor.
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OMR
Optical Mark Recognition - uses a predefined form to allow multiple choice input. Data is read automatically by an OMR reader and marks can be easily associated with answers and information.
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Network
collection of interconnected computers which have the ability to communicated with one another along interconnections.
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Data Packet
A chunk of binary data which is used to send information across a network. It will contain a message to be sent as well as additional data on how the packet was formed, should be read, where it came from and who it is going to.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Instructions which run on the CPU to perform tasks.

Back

Software

Card 3

Front

Allow data to flow from the user to the computing system for processing.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Allow data to flow from the computing system to the user after being processed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Allow software and user data to stored on a non-volatile device such as a hard drive.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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