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Chapter 3: the Psychodynamic Approach
Methodology
Case study research method

In-depth unique detailed study.
Focus- an individual/group of individuals with relationship
Made up of different research methods: interviews, observations,
questionnaires.
o Main research tool= case history
Case study is a research method on itself, but other methods are used to…

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Freud used them to investigate each individual with detail.
Questionnaires etc. = qualitative data
Tests etc= quantitative
Mainly qualitative with some quantitative.
Unique, individual in-depth studies of a focus.
Help to cure people (therapy based) + to access unconscious.
Freud used case studies as a research method in order to…

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Unscientific- unconscious is not tangeable, so it's impossible to test it/measure
it.

Comparation of general case studies + Freud's case studies

Similarities Differences

Both use + than one Different research
research method. methods used.
Freud= dream analysis
General= questionnaires
Both involve Freud used them as
qualitative data. therapies. General have…

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Also, strict guidelines for therapists about personal conduct, responsibilities + training.

Correlation designs

A correlation design= design which compares two measures of the same individual.

o When P is measured in 2 scales
o Once scores are obtained, relationship is tested.

Two types:

Positive correlation- when one measure increases, the…

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Can discover unexpected relationships that might have not been realised previously.
As long as two scaled measures and same people produce 2 sets of data, a test can
be carried out. Flexible design= unexpected relationship can lead to new research
No P variables- same Ps provide both sets of data…

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+ ethical as they're shorter and put less pressure on Ps (P is not expected to be
available for a long time period)

Weaknesses

Do not gather so much rich data as longitudinal. Cross-sectional are a snapshot
of Ps at certain time.
Trends in data if a later study was…

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Longitudinal= expensive + time
consuming
Cross sectional= uncontrolled
Longitudinal= Ps variables are controlled
Longitudinal= + rich in-depth info
Cross sectional= don't
Cross sectional= info quickly analysed +
ready
Longitudinal= analysis at end of study.


Analysing qualitative data

Generating themes

Data sorted out in arrays, tables + flowcharts
Frequencies calculated +…

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Come from real P + Data compared + Subjective
situation conclusions done

Influenced by researcher Not easily replicated Depends on researcher
analysis.
Certain time + situation If repeated, diff. results



I must be able to describe + evaluate the 4 different sampling techniques
(random, stratified, volunteer, opportunity)




Content


Key assumptions…

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2. Preconscious mind
o Thoughts + ideas can be accessed
o We don't know about (memories)
3. Unconscious mind
o MAIN PART
o Cannot access it
o All thoughts originate from here.

Iceberg analogy:

Conscious mind above surface
Preconscious mind small part below surface
Unconscious mind everything below.



Why is…

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E.g. Baby cries for food. Wants it + cries to have it.

Ego:

Rational part of personality
Develops from 18 months
Tries to obtain for id what i ants
"Balance"
Works out on how to satisfy the person

Superego:

Works on the morality principle
Develops at phallic stage, around 4…

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