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The creation of
· Socialist Yugoslavia was declared by Marshall Tito in
· The communists were able to deal with national
aspirations by creating a federation of six nominally
equal republics - Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia,
Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Macedonia.
· In Serbia the two provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina
were given autonomous status. Communist rule restored
stability and good relations with the west ensured a
steady stream of loans.
· Later, however, national and ethnic tensions increased
due to unequal development and a growing burden of
· When Tito died in 1980 many expected the federation
to break up but Yugoslavia was to survive for another
ten years.…read more

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With its current
boundary divisions…read more

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Ethnic Cleansing
· BY 1992 the Yugoslav Federation was falling apart.
· Nationalism had once again replaced communism as the dominant
force in the Balkans.
· Slovenia and then Croatia were the first to break away but only at the
cost of renewed conflict with Serbia.
· The war in Croatia led to hundreds of thousands of refugees and re-
awakened memories of the brutality of the 1940s.
· By 1992 a further conflict had broken out in Bosnia, which had also
declared independence.
· The Serbs who lived there were determined to remain within
Yugoslavia and to help build a greater Serbia.
· They received strong backing from extremist groups in Belgrade.
· Muslims were driven from their homes in carefully planned operations
that become known as 'ethnic cleansing'.…read more

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The Bosnian Conflict
· By 1993 the Bosnian
Muslim government was
besieged in the capital
Sarajevo, surrounded by
Bosnian Serb forces who
controlled around 70% of
· In Central Bosnia, the
mainly Muslim army was
fighting a separate war
against Bosnian Croats who
wished to be part of a
greater Croatia.
· The presence of UN
peacekeepers to contain…read more

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The Resolution
· American pressure to end the war eventually led to the Dayton
agreement of November 1995 which created two self-governing
entities within Bosnia - the Bosnian Serb Republic and the Muslim
(Bosnjak)-Croat Federation.
· The settlement's aims were to bring about the reintegration of
Bosnia and to protect the human rights but the agreement has
been criticised for not reversing the results of ethnic cleansing.
· The Muslim-Croat and Serb entities have their own governments,
parliaments and armies.
· A Nato-led peacekeeping force is charged with implementing the
military aspects of the peace agreement, primarily overseeing the
separation of forces.
· But the force was also granted extensive additional powers,
including the authority to arrest indicted war criminals when
encountered in the normal course of its duties.
· Croatia, meanwhile, took back most of the territory earlier captured
by Serbs when it waged lightning military campaigns in 1995 which
also resulted in the mass removal of around 200,000 Serbs from
Croatia.…read more

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