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Cognitive Psychology


Thinking -

Perception
Language
Analysing
Attention
Problem Solving
Decision Making

Memory - This involves three processes encoding, storage and retrieval; which is similar to a
computer (input process output), the only difference being we as humans are influenced by our
perspective of things whereas computers save it and…

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Cognitive Psychology


Sperling (1960) carried out a study to discover the duration of information in sensory memory. He
used what is called a partial report method, in which participants were presented with an array of
letters in a 4 x 3 matrix:

S B G R
F M P A…

Page 3

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Cognitive Psychology


Aims: Peterson and Peterson aimed to study how long information remains in short term
memory without rehearsal.

Procedure: Participants were shown trigrams consisting of three consonants (e.g. hwr, jrq, klp).
Recall of these trigrams was required after a delay of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18 seconds.…

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Cognitive Psychology


The studies of memory are not ecologically valid. Experiments are carried out in a lab are not
meaningful and they have no mundane realism therefore we can't generalise because of other
variables.

Long Term Memory (LTM)

Capacity

It is impossible to measure and may be limitless.

Duration

Whitinger…

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Cognitive Psychology




Theory of Memory No. 1
Rehearsal

Multi-Store Model of Memory/Two Process Model/Atkinson & Shiffrin

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Cognitive Psychology




Evidence FOR Multi-Store Model of Memory

Peterson + Peterson (1959) - STM Duration, Trigrams, Count Back in 3's, Showed
That Information Had To Be Rehearsed To Go Into LTM.

Atkinson (1970) - Primacy + Recency Effect - Recency Effect Is Evidence For STM

Baddeley Study (1966) - Words…

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Cognitive Psychology


information was kept in STM. Therefore, people have different ways of organising
information in STM and recall doesn't depend on rehearsal but on what you do with the
information in STM.

Evaluation of Multi-Store Model of Memory

Good evidence of the existence of two stores - STM &…

Page 8

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Cognitive Psychology


of the letter pair that followed it, (e.g. A is followed by B: BA). At the same time, they had to
do a task that involved the phonological loop or the central executive as well as the
phonological loop. The reasoning performance slowed down with the additional task…

Page 9

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Cognitive Psychology


Children up to the age of 13 were more likely than adults to make an identification when the
culprit wasn't there.


Bronfenbrenner (1988) presented different age groups with misleading information about an
incident; 2 days later, their memory was tested. He found memory was only slightly affected by…

Page 10

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Cognitive Psychology


Bartlett (1932) came up with the idea of `schemas' he believed that recall is subject to personal
interpretation dependent on our learnt or cultural norms and values. Schema simply means an
organized packet of information which is stored in long term memory. Bartlett also believed that our
reconstructive…

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