Class Difference in Educational Achievement – External

External factors in class in educational achievement

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Class Difference in Educational
Achievement ­ External
Cultural Deprivation:
· Having a lack of basic values, attitudes and skills needed for a successful education.
· According to theorists, many of the children that are culturally deprived are from working class
backgrounds. This is due to the lack of educational equipment that they have, due to lack of money.
Intellectual Deprivation:
· This refers to the development of thinking and reasoning skills, such as problem solving.
· Many theorists say that working class homes don't have enough educational books, toys etc
that stimulate the child's mind. They argue that by not having such educational resources,
stop the child from developing intellectually. This then means that the child lacks what other
children don't have.
Douglas 1964
Working class pupils scored lower on ability tests
This is because working class parents are less likely to support their children's intellectual
E.g. Development through reading or other educational activities
Bernstein and Young 1967
Middle class mothers are more likely to buy toys that encourage thinking and reasoning
skills to prepare children for school
Bereiter and Engelmann 1967
Claimed that language used in working class homes is deficient: use disjointed, single
words and gestures.
As a result children fail to develop the necessary language skills for school, which means
they can't understand or produce `exam level language'
They also are unlikely to take advantage opportunities that school offers.
Bernstein 1975
Found that the difference in the more developed, middle class language and the
underdeveloped, working class language affected the child's achievement

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Restricted Code- Often used by the working class. Has limited vocabulary and is often
grammatically simple. Speech is predictable and often only uses single words or even
expressions (gestures or on face). It is descriptive not analytical. Often the speaker
believes that the person they are speaking to have the same experiences as
Elaborated Code ­ Often used by the middle class. Uses a wider range of vocabulary and
is based on longer, more complex sentences. Speech is varied and can be imaginative.…read more

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This subculture ensures that the person doesn't want to have educational success nor do
they know how to succeed.
Sugarman 1920
Believes that working class subculture creates a barrier from educational success
Fatalism: A belief in fate- whatever will be will be so there is no point in trying to
change it. The middle class believe that they should do everything in their power to
achieve educational success.…read more

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They created sites where many educational services were based so that most of a
child's heath was covered from health advisors to dentist to nurseries etc.
Criticism of Cultural Deprivation:
Keddie 1973
Argued that no child can be deprived of their own culture
The working class attitude is just simple and different compared to the middle class
attitude.…read more

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Nearly 90% of "failing" schools are located in deprived areas
Working class families are much more likely to have low incomes or inadequate housing
Poor housing can affect pupils' achievement both directly and indirectly
E.g. overcrowding can have a direct effect by making it harder for the child to study.
-Overcrowding means less room for educational activities, nowhere to do homework,
disturbed sleep from sharing beds or bedrooms and so on.…read more

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Found that the cost of items such as transport, uniforms, books, computers, calculators,
and sports, music, and art equipment, places a heavy burden on poor families
As a result, poor children may have to make do with hand-me-downs and cheaper but
unfashionable equipment, and this may result in being stigmatised or bullied by peers
Yet, for many children, suitable clothes are essential for self-esteem and "fitting in".…read more



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