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Preverbal Stages
Stage Features Age
· Sounds of discomfort and reflexive actions 0-4
Vegetative · Noises only made for survival- parents
Cooing · Comfort sounds and vocal play using open- 4-7
mouthed vowel sounds e.g. /u/, /a/ linked to
produce extended vowel sounds ooh and aah
Babbling · Repeated Patterns of consonant and vowel 6-12
sounds e.g. Bababa... (canonical babbling) or
googigagoo (variegated babbling)
Proto-words · Word-like vocalisations not matching actual 9-12
words but used consistently for the same
meaning (scribble talk) e.g. Sees cup, points,
says baa, says that every time
· Practising prosodic features…read more

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Stage Features Age
Holophrastic · One word utterances 12-18
(one word) · Lexical process is underway, Phonology is important to months
convey meaning
Two- word · Two-word combinations 18-24
· Successfully joining words and phrases involves months
understanding the meaning of words
·Once two words can be combined then syntactical and
grammatical advances can be made
·Discourse skills such as turn-taking develop as
conversations become possible and politeness skills
encouraged by parents may appear
Telegraphic ·Three and more words combined 24-36
· Vocabulary is likely to develop rapidly months
· Grammatical ability will become more important at this
stage in order to combine words together in the correct
·Discourse and pragmatic awareness become more
sophisticated as children learn to interpret other people's
speech and meaning
Post- · More grammatically complex combinations, properly 36+
telegraphic constructed months…read more

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Developing Phonology
Consonant Group Examples
Plosives- block airflow B, p, t, d, k, g
Fricatives- partial block of F, v, s, z, sh
Africates- mixture of plosive and Ch, dj,
Nasals- comes through nose M, n, g
Approximates- comes through R, j, w
voicebox (no airflow)
Laterals- tongue L
Vowel Group Examples
Short Vowels Fit, let, bat, dog, shut, letter
Long Vowels Cream, firm, card, born, boot
Diphthongs Rice, bait, boy, note, town, poor, clear, chair…read more

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Developing Phonology
Phonemic Expansion: increase in the variety of sounds that the child
produces expands vocal ability.
occurs in cooing, babbling and protoword stages (preverbal)
Phonemic Contraction: children reduce the sounds to only those that
they need for their own language.
Occurs in holophrastic stage onwards
Pamela Grunwell 1987
Age (months) Phoneme
24 P, b, m, d, n, w, t
30 K, g, h, nj
36 F, s, j, l
42 Ch, dj, v, z, sh, r
48+ L, th, zj…read more

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Developing Phonology
Virtuous Errors: mistakes that children make while learning which help
them progress
Early Phonological `errors'
Term Explanation Examples
Deletion Omitting final consonant in words do(g), cu(p)
Substitution Substituting one sound for another (especially `pip' for `ship'
harder sounds)
Addition Adding an extra vowel sound to the end of words `doggie'
creating cvcv pattern
Reduplication Repeating a whole syllable `dada' `mama'
Assimilation Changing one consonant or vowel for another `gog' for `dog'
Consonant cluster Difficult consonant clusters reduced to smaller units `pider' for
reductions `spider'
Deletion of Omitting the opening syllable in polysyllabic words `nana' for
unstressed `banana'
syllables…read more

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