Slides in this set
Syntax word order and how the child puts words into
patterns to control meaning
Derivational morphology = study of how morphemes are
used to help create new words;
Inflectional morphology = the study of how morphemes are
used to create different grammatical functions.
Morphemes = smallest unit of grammatical meaning…read more
Grammatical development - Syntax
Syntax and MLU:
· Syntax = word order
· Syntax in terms of child language refers to putting
words together into patterns and seeing how the
child develops an understanding of how word
order can control meanings.
· As children get older, they produce longer and
more complicated utterances.
· Mean length of utterance (MLU) is a term used to
analyse a child's grammatical development.
· To calculate the MLU add up all the free and
bound morphemes in the utterance, the higher
the number of morphemes, the more developed
the child's language is.…read more
Pre verbal/'fuzzy area':
· During the babbling stage CVCV structures can
begin to sound like words.
· Proto-words are sounds that sound like words
but aren't related to object referents Steven
Pinker e.g. `goggie' could mean `dog; but
would have to be applied consistently to make
it a clear word.
· Steven Pinker: `A word is a stretch of sound
that expresses a concept'.…read more
One word/holophrastic stage:
· There is no syntax present as the child only
communicates using single words.
· The first words formed tend to fall into similar
categories, Katherine Nelson labelled these categories:
Naming (nouns) e.g. socks, Mummy, cat
Action (verbs) e.g. poo, eat, cuddle
Social e.g. hello, yes, ta
Modifying (determiners/adjectives) e.g. more, hot, two
· 60% of children's' first words tend to be nouns.
· These words can be holophrases where one word stands
for a whole phrase and it is up to the adult to speculate
· Gestalt phrases are often used in this stage two words
that the child has `chunked' together after hearing them
around that they can't yet segment e.g. `allgone'.…read more
Two word stage (18 months):
· Holophrastic utterances will still be used.
· The two words will generally have accurate syntax and follow one of the following forms as noted
by Roger Brown:
Doer + action (subject and verb) e.g. `I eat'
Action + undergoer (verb and object) e.g. `Drink juice'
Doer + undergoer (subject and object) e.g. `dolly dinner'
Possessor + thing (noun and noun) e.g. `mummy dress'
Property + thing (adjective and noun) e.g. `big car'
Action + location (verb and adverb) e.g. `come here'
· Children will try and imitate adults speech during this stage and although they may not succeed,
the order of words will usually be in the right order.
· According to Bloom (1973) 2 word utterances can indicate many things:
Possession e.g. `mummy car'
Performing an action e.g. `Adam run'
Explaining location e.g. `biscuit cupboard'
Desire e.g. `me drink'
· Utterances can be seen as ambiguous as the child hasn't yet begun to use inflectional morphemes
so the meaning is clouded.
· George Braine noted that during the two-word stage patterns of children's two word utterances
seem to resolve around certain keywords `pivot words' that are combined with `open words'
less frequent but more varied. E.g. A word like `allgone' would act as a pivot and be combined
with a range of other words to create two word utterances e.g. `allgone Daddy'.…read more
The telegraphic stage (age 2):
· This is where 3 and 4 word utterances appear.
· Some of these utterances will be grammatically complete but
some will have grammatical words (determiners, auxiliary
verbs, modal auxiliaries and prepositions) missing condense
everything they want to say to include only the key lexical words
hence name `telegraphic' links to telegrams which were paid
for by the word and thus grammatical words were omitted.
· Begin to:
· By age 3 all the grammatical words will be used regularly and
sentences with more than one clause will appear co-ordinating
conjunctions are used (FANBOYS).
· The two word and telegraphic stages are typically the time when
declarative sentence structures are manipulated and syntax is
altered to create questions and negatives.…read more