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The Periodic Table

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Magnesiu Aluminiu
Element Sodium Silicon Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Argon
m m
1st ionization
496 738 577 786 1080 1000 1251 1520
energy (kJ mol1)
Giant Giant Giant Macro
Structure Molecular Molecular Molecular Atomic
Metallic Metallic Metallic Molecular
0.93 1.31 1.61 1.90 2.19 2.58 3.16 3.20
(Pauling scale)

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Atomic Radii:

These tell us about the size of atoms. We cannot measure the radius of an isolated atom because
there is no clear point at which the electron cloud density around it drops to zero. Half the distance
between the centres of a pair of atoms is used…

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Ionisation Energies Cont.

Graph of 1st ionisation energies of elements in period 3

Aluminium (group 2) has lower ionisation energy than magnesium (group 3) because a new sub shell
is starting to be filled in aluminium, which is easier to remove.

Sulphur has lower first ionisation energy than phosphorus…


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