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Julian Smilg LTJA Sunday, 31 May 2009


Chemistry revision notes
States of matter:
Solids have a regular shape, the particles are packed in a regular pattern. Solids
cannot be compressed, the particles are as close together as they can possibly
get. Solids are dense, there is very little space between…

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When a liquid is cooled, the particles once more lose energy, they vibrate less as they
slow down. Eventually they stop moving, except for vibrations in fixed positions. A
solid has now formed.



The diffusion of gases
The lighter the particles of gas, the faster the gas will diffuse.

Dissolved…

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Some of the groups have special names:

Group 1: the alkali metals.

Group 2: the alkaline earth metals.

Group 7: the halogens.

Group 0 or 8: the noble gases.

The zigzag line through the Periodic Table separates the Metals on the left
with the nonmetals to the right of the…

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At the centre of an atom is a nucleus containing protons and neutrons. Electrons are arranged
around the nucleus in energy levels or shells. Make sure you can label a simple diagram of an
atom like this one.



The number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number.…

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As you go down Group 1 the atoms become larger and the outer electron is further from the
nucleus. The force of attraction between the positively-charged nucleus and the
negatively-charged outer electron becomes weaker, which is why the outer electron is more
easily lost.
So potassium is more reactive than…

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Chemical formula
The chemical formula of a compound shows how many of each type of atom join together to
make the units that make the compound up. For example, in iron sulfide every iron atom is joined
to one sulfur atom, so we show its formula as FeS. In sodium…

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Rules

1. We CAN put numbers in front of symbols/ formula
2. We CANNOT change formula
3. We CANNOT put numbers in the middle of formulae.




Prep and tests for gasses, test for water
Gases such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and chlorine can be made using
chemical reactions.…

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Iron and steel rust when they come into contact with water and oxygen. Both water and oxygen
are needed for rusting to occur. In the experiment below, the nail does not rust when air -
containing oxygen - or water is not present:


Calcium chloride absorbs water in the right-hand…

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The process of removing sulfur dioxide
Sulfur can be removed from fuels at the oil refinery. This makes the fuel more expensive to produce, but it
prevents sulfur dioxide being produced. You may have noticed 'low sulfur' petrol and diesel on sale at filling
stations.

Greenhouse effect
The greenhouse effect…

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Sodium

Lithium

Calcium

R

E Magnesium

A Aluminium

C Zinc

T Iron

I Nickel

V Tin

I

T Lead

Y Copper

Mercury

Silver

Gold

Platinum

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